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    3hh Chestnut gelding Bluey 14hh Roan gelding Cavalier 13

    Gift Vouchers - Gifts Horses-store.com3hh Chestnut gelding Bluey 14hh Roan gelding Cavalier 13

    Horse & Pony Sponsorship Become a Sponsor today and make a new friend! Barney 14.3hh Black gelding Bella 15.2hh Black mare Bess Lloyd 16.3hh Black mare Bisto 13.3hh Chestnut gelding Bluey 14hh Roan gelding Cavalier 13.2hh Chestnut gelding A great gift for friends, family and colleagues Helping to keep our horses happy & healthy! Charlie 14.2hh Piebald gelding Choco 14.3hh Piebald gelding Daymo 14.3hh Bay gelding Fergus 16.1hh Black gelding Harry 13.2hh Grey gelding Lady 13.2hh Bay mare Marge 15.3hh Skewbald mare Poppy 16hh Bay mare Razzamatazz 14hh Iron gelding Roddy 16.3hh Chestnut gelding Smurf 16hh Black gelding Spike 13.2hh Grey gelding Avon Riding Centre for the Disabled Ltd Kings Weston Road, Henbury Bristol, BS10 7QT Tel 0117 959 0266 Email Web Tic Tac 13.2hh Grey gelding Winston 16.1hh Grey gelding Registered Charity No. 281648 Company Registered in England & Wales No. 1534625 Achievement through riding Avon Riding Centre for the Disabled is home to over 25 horses and ponies of all shapes and sizes. I would like to Sponsor for a 12 month period: I enclose a cheque (made payable to Avon Riding Centre) for:

    Read more about 3hh Chestnut gelding Bluey 14hh Roan gelding Cavalier 13:

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    Near Side : James Sharp offered me a gig harness for £ 6….

    Bridle Bijoux - blue, silver and crystal Horses-store.comNear Side : James Sharp offered me a gig harness for £ 6….

    9th …

    I went on to Loves back without a bridle.

    She ran off & threw me & near mischieved me. 12th …

    Ewe lambed, lamb died. 14th …

    I gave Morren £5 to himself & £5 to pay Mossatside for his neeps which was £3 & sent cheque to Mr Walker Aurdhunkard for £14 stg 16th Morren ploughing J Reids farm forenoon … 9 ewes lambed too soon lambs dead 17th Bracks ewes home.. 19th ..

    I went in over to Blackhills riding a very warm day , very fine music with Wattie Mitchell on the fiddle 20th Morren working in garden planted potatoes …

    Daniels funeral aged 65 years 21st Wattie & I home here by 11 a.m. ..

    Paid Wm Law 8/- for 4 1/2 days work 23rd a fine gimmer died with mortification was very ill in lambing… 25th …

    James Sharp offered me a gig & harness for £6 28th a very warm day opened & dunged 5 dreels taties; at near side 2 drills Wm Kellas; then 2 drills Champions & 1 drill Blue Hearts.

    I at Blackhills for them & Howbog for chilled plough.

    Morren to Ferybrae tonight. 30th …

    Eben Innes ploughed & linked & harrowed Jane Dauns farm.

    Bodiebae planted their taties.

    G Hay here wanting to fee me as shepherd. May 1894 1st …

    Ligertwood laired in back park a job getting him out.. 2nd Auchmair for Missy brought home meal… 3rd I had to rise & help Morren to yoke Missy he afraid… 5th Elsie away early this morning to speyside…Morren carted 3 loads neeps the last a.m. 8th Maryfair…

    I paid P Sutherland Macharshaugh £5.. 10th…

    Wm Law bidding to Mains Sharps funeral… 11th …

    I at Mains funeral riding his age was 84 years nearly 85…[John Sharp, s William Sharp & Isobel Roy] 12th Scurdargues sale 15th…

    It never faired the whole day could not get thrashed for water in wheel pit.

    School examination today. 18th working in garden very hot, rain at night. 19th …

    Booking here tonight John Henry [s of John Hendry & Jean Simpson] & Maggie Elsie Grant to be proclaimed in Church tomorrow. 22nd …

    Feed Maggie Taylor for £3”10 & gave her 1/- arles 25th Morren ..

    I paid him & let him away 3 p.m.

    His fee £10”10 I gave him 4/6 to it. — 14th Alick harrowing awhile a.m. & Adam & I preparing for clipping old Reid John Jamieson Mary Shearer Jane Daun Adam self & Alick a fine day clipped hoggs 98 + 11 yeld ewes kept wedder hoggs down & 2 ewes to lamb 15th received a Summons to attend a Sherriff Court at Elgin 28th inst between Craik of Craig & Cromdale 16th …

    Adam set up 32 dreels & I sowed them all with Golden Yellow & Purple Top.

    John Yeatts marriage today a right fine day. 17th Sunday I drove wife & children down to Cottage p.m.

    Alick looking after beasts Adam to Lumsden John Jamieson away to the Bank a very warm day 20th Srarted mossing today…

    Howbog horses going idle today 27th This is our Fast day Adam away to Lumsden I to Elgin stayed at Hunters ( Mount Piller Bishopmill) all night had a look through the Cathedral & Cooper Park Love laired in back park Harry Nicoll & women digged & pulled her out with ropes 28th I had a look through Elgin & on top of Lady hill then to Court which began at 11.30 a.m.

    Lasted till after 2 p.m.

    Left Elgin with 2.48 train had dinner at Dufftown.

    John Gordon Cromdale lost the case.

    Adam & Alick mossing all day rain today. 30th Adam & Alick in moss I nursing Johnnie all day he very ill & fevered & neck swollen .

    Alick away home tonight. July 1906 1st Sunday This our Sacrament Sunday Mrs Shearer & I at Church Alick at Howtown Smith the keeper & Foresters men on top of Buck 3rd Adam & Alick in moss finished 4 peat up back 2 in top & down near side.

    I at Rhynie with Lizzie & Willie got Dasey’s shoes removed 4th ..

    Alick in Adam’s moss with Jojn Jamieson all day 6th Clipping ewse & cut lambs John Souter Adaam Jane Daun Mrs Shearer & John Jamieson, Jas Reid made up wool & I tared & cut feet left 3 ewes to clip came on rain This concert night.

    Alick to Powneed with red cow to bull. 7th …

    Everyone about the place at PicNic afternoon a fine day home here 10 p.m.

    Mrs Taylor Mill delivered of a son today 8th Sunday 5 men & one woman on top of Buck noon.

    Annie Gauld or Henderson away home tonight .

    Alick went with her a bit to carry her baby 16th Us three hoeing neeps a.m.

    I rode over to Aldunie got Willie’s boots mended had over Lizzies shoes & Edward Shearer’s boots 19th John Robertson Jnr & I drove to Craigellachie sales he down 6 young pigs 15/6 & 18/3 for them him & Tom at funeral Mr Mathieson Fife Arms funeral tomorrow & a.m.

    Going to Skye.

    Adam & Alick hoeing all day 21st Adam cleaning in garden & Alick cutting thistles & tansies 27th …

    Took young Mary Reid to Dr with her finger has to get it off 2lbs suit 1/- B whisky 3/- tobacco 1/1 Adam & Alick hoeing neeps .

    I engaged Bella Gauld from now to term £4 29th Alick at Howtown last night& today Adam in hill at averings no vis today a fearful warm day. August 1906 3rd Friday I left this 8.30 a.m. & drove to Bogs of Noth left Dasey & trap there then took train to Aberdeen with Mary Reid to infirmary to get off a finger called at Infirmary saw house Doctor then had a look through town bathing station & harbour we both stayed with Mrs Mearns a fine day. 4th I down to Infirmary with Mary Reid 10.30 a.m.

    I stayed untill her opation was past 2.30 p.m.

    Dr Marnoch took off her finger.

    I then went to Police Sports the I went back to Infirmary for Mary 6.30 p.m. & brought her to Mrs Mearns house (4 Rosemount Place Aberdeen).

    I slept at Mr Woods house tonight Thunder & rain today.

    Adam cutting hay. 6th I up at 6 a.m.

    Breakfast & bade the Woods good bye then at Infirmary seeing Mary Souter & through New Market & town a.m.

    Mary & I left Aberdeen with 2.20 p.m.

    Train had our tea with Mrs Harvey did not stop in Rhynie Adam cutting hay Alick at neeps Bella Gauld came tonight. 10th ….

    To Bracklach & cut sturdy ewe p.m.

    Alexr Robertson came here tonight & stayed with me for which I am very well pleased 11th Adam & Alick carting peats all day to Shearer — 22nd I at Church down at shands & at old Lizzie Bob Ligertwood at Reids & Jim Reid & Jane Spence away at Kinny burn together.

    Willie & Jockie at Elrick with letter to PG a fine day.

    A fine day a lot of rain p.m. 23rd Lizzie& I mossing & Mary awhile p.m.

    Has far side done Boys & Annie at school 24th I tirred near bank then Lizzie & I mossing 6 hours Mary & bairns out over p.m. 25th ditto but not Mary 26th & 27th mossing 29th Boys & I gathered inover sheep from far hill got 6 dead.

    G Gordon Elrick here forenoon. 30th I rinning neeps a.m.

    Workiing in garden & hoeing neeps p.m.

    A fearful warm day.. July 1913 1st clipped 69 ewes today At clipping A Gordon Bracklach shepherd of Reekimlane jane Daun & myself & Jas, reid & Willie catching & making up wool a fine day. 2nd I hoeing by myself all day Lizzie setting up peats at dam has them all set not good peats Lizzie £1 3rd I hoeing boys & I marked 61 cross lambs & 3 BF do 62 ewes 7 22 hoggs with red marking fluid on near side. 4th Friday …

    Hoed taties boys & myself p.m.

    None of us at Church.

    Nell & Bell Reid here p.m. 5th Boys lizzie & I hoeing turnips all day has 33 dreels done but bits at end a fine day some rain. 6th this Sacrament Sunday just Lizzie at Church 7th I hoeing.

    Mrs Nicol delivered of a son 8.15 a.m.

    None with her but my wife.

    Dod Nicol hoeiing awhile p.m. & Willlie & Jockie at night. 8th I hoeing & Lizzie in moss setting peats p.m.

    Mrs Nicol had a son on Monday & up out of bed today. 10th Lizzie boys & I hoeing Mrs Nicol washing today…. 11th Lizzie at Rhynie went & came with Post.

    Boys & I hoeing all day & Lizzie awhile p.m.

    After she came home, a very fine day 12th Boys & I hoeing awhile a.m.

    Took Poll in cart & drove wife, Mary & all the children to PicNic left mare at Auchmair kept up fine all day. 13th Mary Duncan & Annie & I at Church vis here p.m.

    Mr & Mrs Melvin (Lizzies sister) & 3 of their family, Nell & Bell Teid…

    Jane Spence left Auchmair last night or today. 14th Lizzie, boys & I hoeing..

    Annie at school 15th Jockie in bed not well Lizzie , Willie & I hoeing..

    Annie at school 16th Willie, Johnnie & Annie at school.

    Lizzie & I hoeing…. 17th I hoeing all day by myself Mrs Esson home to Brackla, Lizzie & Mary washing. 18th I to far hill & gathered inover sheep keeled BF lambs & tared clipped 2 ewes has 18 strangers a very fine day. 19th making dor dipping .

    Poll mare served twice today this the last round paid him £1”15 a.m.

    Dipping p.m.

    Willie Jockie & I

    Read more about Near Side : James Sharp offered me a gig harness for £ 6….:

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  • Equestrian Products – Guardian Horse Bedding, Equiderma Skin Products, Equilinn Sports Bra, Learn more about Bridle Bijoux – blue, silver and crystal HERE: and Near Side : James Sharp offered me a gig harness for £ 6…. - Near Side : James Sharp offered me a gig harness for £ 6…. and Near Side : James Sharp offered me a gig harness for £ 6…. - Near Side : James Sharp offered me a gig harness for £ 6….

    Curb Bit : The curb bit is similar to the Real Escuela but….

    Pacifier Holder Clip - Gifts Horses-store.comCurb Bit : The curb bit is similar to the Real Escuela but….

    Tack – Clásica ‘Portuguese’ type Pelham type Alta Escuela bits, similar in effect to the British Weymouth, are also used.

    This bit is used in conjunction with a (black) bridoon and double reins.

    In Spain the usual ‘standard’ off the shelf width is 12.5mm, although 13.5mm and 14.5mm widths are available. ‘Real Escuela’ bit.

    Note: The actual bit currently in use by the Real Escuela de Arte is slightly different, see below The Real Escuela de Arte Ecuestre, Jerez Tack In dressage displays the Alta Escuela style saddle is used, without sheepskin.

    Leather is natural/tan, matching the girth, stirrup leathers and double bridle, which has ‘brassed’ (not black) buckles.

    The curb bit is similar to the ‘Real Escuela’ but has the school’s ‘brassed’ patterned motif on the ends of the bit, rather than the plain brassed ends as on the ‘Real Escuela’ bit.

    The bridoon has loose rings and these are also ‘brassed’, matching the motif and the buckles on the bridle.

    Dress This is inspired by the Goyesque style and is worn by riders in their shows and exhibitions (not Vaquera exhibitions, when the Traje Corto is worn).

    The hat is the calañés, worn under a kerchief.

    This is traditional country dress, with the kerchief used as protection against dust, flies, mosquitoes and to stop perspiration from the head marking the inside of the velvet calañés.

    A jacket with full collar and knee length breeches are worn.

    White knee high stockings/hose are worn, with Los Botines (long leather spats), with fancy stitching and left loosely laced in order to show a glimpse of the white stockings – as seen in 19th century engravings.

    Page 20 of 29 Spanish Riding Costume & Tack Guide Viva Iberica © Yeguada Iberica RIDING CLOTHING – CLÁSICA (CLASSICAL) STYLE Hat (Sombrero) The sombrero cordobés is the usual wear (for more information see: ‘Clothing – Vaquera’). The sombrero calañés, a small round, velvet hat with upturned/rolled brim, worn over a cotton ‘kerchief’, is sometimes worn.

    The kerchief is tied in a ‘pirate’ style with the knot at the back of the head.

    The hat is worn slightly tilting forwards.

    The ‘catite’ is similar and worn with a kerchief, used mostly in displays. Jacket – Riding – Men It is more usual for men to wear the same as in Vaquera (for information see: ‘Clothing – Vaquera’).

    The Chaquetilla Paseo is sometimes worn; a short jacket with lapels, open at the front, five buttons per sleeve.

    For men the colour ideally should match the trousers.

    Black unpopular – an all black outfit is not considered correct as this denotes funeral wear.

    The paseo jacket is worn without the buttons done up.

    Read more about Curb Bit : The curb bit is similar to the Real Escuela but….:

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    Bridle Bijoux - grey, silver and crystal Horses-store.comMiniature Pony : FULL SHETLAND PROGRAM THREE HEIGHT SECTIONS ALSO MINIATURE PONY COLOURED….




    All ponies entered in the Shetland Rings must be registered and current financial members of the APSB.

    Copies of proof of Registration and current membership cards required (to be sent with entries). 2.

    Ponies entered in the Miniature Pony Classes must be registered with a Recognised Miniature Registry.

    Copies of proof of Registration required (to be sent with entries). 3.

    The APSB registered breed classes will be run in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Australian Pony Stud Book Society Inc (APSB). 4.

    All Stallions and Colts MUST be Bitted, and handled by a COMPETENT HANDLER at ALL times. 5.

    Entry fees will not be refunded for any reason after the submission of entries. 6.

    A definite lunch break will be taken at 12.00pm and classes will resume at the conclusion of the High Point Award Presentation (approximate time 1.30pm). 7.

    Show Pre – Entries close Friday 20th April, 2012. 8.

    Entries on the day for the Show will be at the higher rate. 9.

    All competitors compete at their own risk. 10.

    Non APSB member must sign the insurance indemnity form provided. 11.


    JUDGES WILL BE ADVISED TO TAKE THIS INTO CONSIDERATION WHEN MAKING THEIR DECISION. SMALL SHETLAND PONIES 8.2HH & UNDER APSB PROMO GROUP ANNUAL SHETLAND PONY AUTUMN SHOW RING ONE Judge: Jo Maurice STRICT LUNCH BREAK AT 12NOON SHETLAND PONIES (Must be registered with the A.P.S.B.S.) 19) Led Colt yearling, over 8.2hh ne 9.2hh FOAL FUTURITY no.1 – START 8.30AM FF1) 2yo Colt or Gelding to mature over 8.2hh, ne 10.2hh FF2) 2yo Filly to mature over 8.2hh, ne 10.2hh FF3) 2yo Colt or Gelding to mature ne 8.2hh FF4) 2yo Filly to mature ne 8.2hh — CHAMPION & RESERVE SHETLAND FOAL over 8.2hh 32a) Led Foal Filly over 7.2hh ne 8.2hh 32b) Led Foal Colt/ Gelding over 7.2hh ne 8.2hh CHAMPION & RESERVE SHETLAND FOAL over 7.2hh ne 8.2hh 33a) Led Foal Filly ne 7.2hh 33b) Led Foal Colt/Gelding ne 7.2hh CHAMPION & RESERVE SHETLAND FOAL ne 7.2hh SUPREME SHETLAND PONY FOAL GRAND SUPREME SHETLAND PONY OF SHOW (All Supreme Shetland Pony Winners Eligible, including Foal) SMALL SHETLAND PONIES 8.2HH & UNDER APSB PROMO GROUP ANNUAL SHETLAND PONY AUTUMN SHOW RING TWO Judge: Karen McCabe HANDLER CLASSES 55) Lady Adult Handler 56) Gentleman Adult Handler 34) Led Stallion 4ys & over 35) Led Colt 2&3yo CHAMPION & RESERVE MINIATURE STALLION/COLT 36) Led Mare 4ys & over 37) Led Filly 2&3yo CHAMPION & RESERVE MINIATURE MARE/FILLY 38) Led Gelding 6ys & over 39) Led Gelding 4&5yo CHAMPION & RESERVE SENIOR MINIATURE GELDING 40) Led Gelding 2 & 3yo 60) Prettiest pony 41) Led Gelding yearling 61) Pony with longest tail CHAMPION & RESERVE JUNIOR MINIATURE GELDING 42) Led Colt yearling 43) Led Filly yearling CHAMPION & RESERVE MINIATURE YEARLING 44a) Led Filly Foal 44b) Lead Colt/Gelding Foal CHAMPION & RESERVE MINIATURE PONY FOAL 62) Pony with longest mane 63) Fattest Pony 64) Smallest Pony 65) Woolliest Pony 66) Pony most like its owner 67) Egg & Spoon Race (pony to be led not ridden) 68) Lemon Race (pony to be led not ridden) 10 minute break 57) Junior Handler 6 years & under 58) Junior Handler 7 & 11 years 59) Junior Handler 12 – 17 years BEST JUNIOR HANDLER BEST ADULT HANDLER STRICT LUNCH BREAK AT 12NOON MINIATURE PONIES – START 9.30AM (Must be Registered with a recognised Miniature Society and measure under 87cms/34inch) KIDS FUN CLASSES (Open to children 17 yrs & under) SUPREME MINIATURE PONY COLOURED PONIES 45) Led Piebald Pony ne 8.2hh 46) Led Skewbald Pony ne 8.2hh 47) Led Dilute Pony ne 8.2hh 48) Led Black Pony ne 8.2hh 49) Led Other Colour Pony ne 8.2hh CHAMPION & RESERVE COLOURED PONY NE 8.2HH 50) Led Piebald Pony over 8.2hh ne 10.2hh 51) Led Skewbald Pony over 8.2hh ne 10.2hh 52) Led Dilute Pony over 8.2hh ne 10.2hh 53) Led Black Pony over 8.2hh ne 10.2hh 54) Led Other Colour Pony over 8.2hh ne 10.2hh CHAMPION & RESERVE COLOURED PONY OVER 8.2HH NE 10.2HH FANCY DRESS CLASSES 69) Fancy Dress – 6 years & under 70) Fancy Dress – 7 – 11yrs 71) Fancy Dress – 12 – 17yrs 72) Fancy Dress – 18 years & over SMALL SHETLAND PONIES 8.2HH & UNDER APSB PROMO GROUP ANNUAL SHETLAND PONY AUTUMN SHOW SHOW ENTRY FORM Copies of current Membership Card/s & Registration Certificate/s must be provided with entry form.

    Pre Entries close Friday 20th April 2012 Class No. Name of Exhibit


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    Cannon Bone : Ideally that line should touch the hocks run parallel to….

    For the Rider Horses-store.comCannon Bone : Ideally that line should touch the hocks run parallel to….

    Withers The ideal withers are sharp, prominent and slightly higher than the horse’s hindquarters or croup.

    A balanced horse will appear to be sloping downhill from front to back.

    When the withers are higher than the croup, the hindquarters are properly positioned under the body and contribute to athletic ability.

    Strength of the top line, over the back, loin and croup, also is important in athletic ability and overall balance and soundness. Barrel As you view a horse from the front, always evaluate spring of rib and depth of heart, as they indicate athletic capacity.

    Select against horses who have a “pinched,” flat-ribbed look, who do not have a rounded, convex look to their rib cages. Hindquarters When viewed from the side, the hindquarters should appear square.

    How the corners of the square are filled in will depend on the breed, with American Quarter Horses being more desirably muscled when the hindquarters complete the square.

    The croup should not be too flat (resulting in too much vertical action in movement) nor too steep (associated with a collected, but very short, choppy stride).

    The ideal American Quarter Horse has a hindquarter that is as full and as long from across the horizontal plane of the stifle as it is from point of hip to point of buttocks.

    Muscling is an important criteria in judging conformation of American Quarter Horses.

    It is important to realize that muscling is proportional (ie as one muscle in the body increases, total muscle mass increases).

    Horses visually appraised as heavily muscled generally have greater circumference of forearm, gaskin and width of hindquarter than lightly muscled horses.

    The horse is a balanced athlete that is muscled uniformly throughout. Feet and Legs Structure of feet and legs are major considerations when evaluating a horse’s conformation.

    When standing beside the horse, drop an imaginary line from the point of the buttocks to the ground.

    Ideally, that line should touch the hocks, run parallel to the cannon bone and be slightly behind the heel.

    The horse with too much angle to his hocks is sickle-hocked, and the horse that is straight in his hocks is post-legged. – 10 – Ideally, when viewed from the rear, any horse should be widest from stifle to stifle.

    Another imaginary line from the point of the buttocks to the ground should bisect the gaskin, hock and hoof.

    It is not critical that a horse be perfectly straight from the ankles down as viewed from the rear.

    In fact, most horses naturally stand with the cannons parallel and toe out slightly from the ankles down.

    This allows the horse’s stifle to clear his ribcage in flight, resulting in a longer-striding, free-moving horse.

    However, when a horse is bowed inward at the hocks and the cannon bones are not parallel, it is cow-hocked.

    The horse that is cow-hocked has a tendency to be weak in the major movements that require work off the haunches such as stopping, turning, sliding, etc.

    Occasionally, there are horses that actually toe-in behind and are bow-legged, most of which are very poor athletes.

    The horse should stand on a straight column of bone with no deviation when viewed from the side.

    A horse that is “over at the knees” is buck-kneed, and the horse that is “back at the knees” is calf-kneed.

    Calf-kneed is the most serious condition since the knee will have a tendency to hyper-extend backward. When the horse is viewed from the front, an imaginary line from the point of the shoulder to the toe should bisect the knee, cannon bone and hoof, with the hoof pointing straight ahead.

    When a horse toes out, it is splay-footed and the horse will always wing in when traveling.

    When a horse toes in, it is pigeon-toed and that horse will always paddle out.

    The most serious of these is the horse that wings in.

    If the cannon bone is off-centered to the outside, it is bench-kneed. – 11 – Soundness and Structure All horses should be serviceably sound.

    In young animals, there should be no indication of defects in conformation that may lead to unsoundness.

    An unsoundness is defined as any deviation in structure that interferes with the usefulness of an individual.

    Many horses will have blemishes — abnormalities that may detract from the appearance of the animal — but are sound.

    You should become familiar with all of the common unsoundnesses and learn to recognize them. Riding and Movement After a basic evaluation of conformation, the next step is evaluating a horse’s movement.

    Movement is an important criteria, particularly when selecting a horse for performance events, as most arena classes place some level of preference on movement.

    For even a beginning recreational rider, a horse should at least walk, trot, lope, and accept leads in both directions.

    The horse should stop easily when asked “whoa” by the rider and yield to leg aids.

    Ideally, horses should also demonstrate the following: • The walk must be alert, with a stride of reasonable length in keeping with the size of the horse. • The trot should be square, balanced and with straight, forward movement of the feet. • The lope should be a natural, three-beat stride and appear relaxed and smooth.

    Horses should accept both leads and change with little difficulty.

    In selecting a horse for arena performance, consider the following criteria: Western — The horse should have a free-flowing stride of reasonable length in keeping with conformation.

    The horse should cover a reasonable amount of ground with little effort and carry his head and neck in a relaxed, natural position, with the poll level with or slightly above the level of the withers.

    Ideally, the horse should have a balanced, flowing motion and be responsive to the rider’s commands, yet smooth in transition of gaits and leads.

    English — The horse should move with long, low strides reaching forward with ease and smoothness, being able to lengthen stride and cover ground with relaxed, free-flowing movement.

    Horses should be obedient, have a bright expression with alert ears and respond willingly to the rider with light leg and hand contact.

    When asked to extend the – 12 – trot or canter, the horse should move out with the same flowing motion.

    The poll should be level with, or slightly above the withers.

    The head should be slightly in front of, or on the vertical.

    Reining or similar advanced disciplines — The horse should be willfully guided or controlled with little or no apparent resistance and be responsive to the rider’s commands.

    Any movement on his own must be considered a lack of, or temporary loss of, control.

    The horse should be smooth, demonstrating finesse, attitude, quickness and authority in performing various maneuvers while using controlled speed. Disposition Probably the most important and most abstract aspect of the evaluation process is determining a horse’s disposition.

    While American Quarter Horses have been selectively bred for generations for good disposition and most often possess an inherently gentle nature, you still must place importance on this in the selection process.

    The reason? While a horse may be impeccably conformed and move like a champ, he still may not possess the correct frame of mind that will allow both you and the horse to realize your true potential.

    Evaluating disposition is particularly important for beginners.

    It can be frustrating to ride a horse who simply isn’t cooperative.

    The rider may lose confidence and become afraid — the horse simply becomes confused.

    Often, both problems multiply if not corrected via professional help.

    While evaluating some conformational traits may help determine disposition, the best method is seeing how a horse behaves when being groomed, saddled, ridden and trailered.

    While the seller’s opinions may be helpful, use your own eyes.

    Observe the horse being groomed, saddled and trailered.

    Does the horse: •Stand quietly when approached by the seller and yourself, or does he flinch or draw back? •Halter or bridle without difficulty? •Paw, set back or lie down when tied? •Accept the saddle? •Stand patiently as a rider mounts? •Load easily into a trailer? Any signs of nervousness, pawing, bucking in place, biting or refusal to comply during grooming, saddling or trailering should be considered faults on the part of the horse.

    Since the horse may respond correctly with the owner, ask the owner if you may perform these tasks yourself, if you feel comfortable doing so.

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    Horses 1 : 12 ABUSE IN TRAINING OF HORSES 1 All forms of….

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    iii White or lightly coloured shirt with white collar and cuffs; with uni-coloured tie or choker.

    Ladies blouses are permitted worn with a choker.

    Iv Long riding boots.

    Black leather bootlegs may be worn with matching jodhpur boots, however no suede leather will be acceptable.

    Juniors and Pony Riders may wear Jodhpur Boots. 4 In bad weather, the Ground Jury may allow the wearing of a waterproof.

    In very warm weather, the Ground Jury may allow Athletes to ride without a jacket, providing the shirt underneath complies with 3.

    Iii above.

    Members of the armed forces and the police may wear uniform, but must wear protective headgear (see 12.2).

    At Recognised Events below CSN status, each Provincial Body may introduce such local rules as it deems fit making it permissible for an Affiliated Body to relax the requirements of rule 12.3.3.

    The Organising Committee of each Recognised Event below CSN status shall state in the schedule for the Event whether or not the rule introduced by the Provincial Body is to be in force at that Event or not.

    Provincial Bodies are to exercise discretion in the drafting of any such dress rule and the extent to which SANEF rules may be relaxed.

    A copy of any rules introduced by a Provincial Body in terms of rule 12.3.6 shall be forwarded to the Secretary General.

    Athletes who are improperly dressed may, at the discretion of the Ground Jury, be refused permission to start and/or fined. (See rule

    At the request of sponsors of CSN status Events and with the prior approval of SANEF, permission may be granted for Athletes to display that sponsor’s logo on their riding coats or alternatively may be granted permission to dispense with the wearing of riding coats in favour of some attire such as the sponsors may request. 5 6 7 8 9 12.4.

    SPURS 1 Spurs of excessively severe design are not to be worn.

    Such designs include spurs with necks in excess of 3 cm long, spurs with necks set on the inside of the heel, spurs with rowel/ball diameters in excess of 1cm, spurs with roughened or cutting edges and serrated spurs, with or without necks.

    Spurs are only to be worn in the traditionally correct manner, with the curve of the neck of the spur directed downwards.

    The misuse of spurs is an offence under General Regulation 02.1.0, but Athletes must also take care that the manner in which they use their spurs does not offend the public.

    In Pony Rider classes, only blunt spurs with necks not exceeding 2 cm long are permitted.

    Pointed, sharp and rowel spurs are forbidden in these classes.

    Spurs made of plastic are not allowed.

    Spurs with a rotating ball not exceeding 2cm in diameter are allowed in all classes 2 3 4 5 6 17.12 ABUSE IN TRAINING OF HORSES 1 All forms of cruel, inhumane or abusive treatment of horses, which include, but are not limited to the various forms of rapping, are strictly forbidden in all exercise and schooling areas as well as elsewhere on the grounds of the event. 2.The following is considered abuse of a Horse 2.1 Rapping horses In the case of rapping or any other abusive schooling practice within the period of jurisdiction of the Ground Jury, the Athlete and the Horse concerned will be disqualified from all Competitions for at least 24 hours.

    In addition, the Ground Jury may take any further action it deems appropriate under the circumstances, including, but not limited to, disqualifying the Athlete and/or Horse from the entire Event.

    The term “rapping” is construed to include all of the artificial techniques intended to induce The horse to jump higher or more carefully in competition.

    It is not practical to list every possible means of rapping, but in general it consists of the Athlete – and/or dismounted assistants, for whose behaviour the Athlete is responsible – either hitting the horse’s legs manually with something (no matter with what or by whom) or deliberately causing the horse to hit something itself, whether by building fences too large and/or wide, setting false ground lines, placing trotting poles or elements of a combination at a false distance, intentionally pulling or pushing the horse into a fence or otherwise making it difficult or impossible for the horse to negotiate the practice obstacle without hitting it. 3 It is forbidden to jump unauthorised obstacles or to rap a horse in any way and in any place on the grounds of the Event or to leave the grounds of the Event for any purpose during the period of the Event. 4 In the case of rapping or any other abusive schooling practice within the period of jurisdiction of the Ground Jury, the Athlete and the horse concerned will be disqualified from all competitions for at least twenty-four hours.

    In addition the Ground Jury can take any further action it deems appropriate to the particular circumstances. 17.13 EXERCISE AND SCHOOLING AREAS AND PRACTICE OBSTACLES 1 The Exercise and Schooling Areas The Organising Committee must provide at least one exercise or schooling area sufficiently large for training conditions.

    There must be a minimum of one straight and one spread obstacle.

    The ground has to be in good shape.

    When there are many Athletes and sufficient space, additional obstacles should be provided.

    All obstacles must be constructed in the usual manner and provided with red and white flags.

    However the flags may be replaced by tape or paint in order to provide a white and red top to the wings/uprights.

    It is compulsory for all horses in the exercise or schooling areas(practise or warm up arena) to be mounted.

    Only Pony Riders (as defined in General Regulation 01.9.1) are permitted to ride Pony Rider Ponies (see General Regulation 00.1.7) anywhere at the venue during Recognised Pony Rider Events.

    Where space permits and the number of Athletes is large, a separate schooling area may be designated. 2 Practice Obstacles The use of fence material not provided by the Organising Committee is forbidden under penalty of disqualification and/or fine.

    Practice obstacles may only be jumped in the direction for which they are flagged.

    No part of the practice obstacles may be held physically by any person. 1 Ground lines may be placed directly underneath the first part of an obstacle or up to 1,00m away on the take-off side.

    If there is a ground-line in front of the fence, a ground line may be used behind the fence at an equal distance up to maximum 1 m. 2 If crossed poles are used as the top part of an obstacle, they must be able to fall individually.

    The top ends of the poles must be in a cup.

    However there can be a horizontal top pole behind the crossed poles, which must be at least 20cm higher than the centre of the cross each other poles.

    Rules against rapping. 3 The top poles of a fence must always be in cups at both ends.

    If the pole is resting on the edge of a cup it must be on the far edge and never on the near edge. 4 Obstacles in the practise arena may never exceed in height and width 10cm more than the maximum height and width of the obstacles of the competition in progress that is if the maximum height of obstacles during that competition is 1,40m or less.

    If the obstacle height of the competition in progress is greater than 1,40m, the obstacles in the practice arena may not exceed 1,80m in width and1,60m in height. 5 The Organising Committee may provide material to simulate a water ditch. 6 Safety Cups must be used as support for the back pole of spread obstacles in the practise arena. 7.

    Any obstacles 1.30 m or higher must have a minimum of two poles, in cups, on the take-off side of the obstacle, regardless of whether or not a ground line is used.

    The lower pole must always be below 1.30 m. 8.

    It is not permitted to walk Horses over poles when these are elevated or placed in cups at one or both ends. 9.

    Jumping the practice obstacle in the wrong direction may incur disqualification 3 Gymnastic Training 1 Athletes may train their horses in gymnastic exercises using trotting poles on the ground and spacing poles, but obstacles used for this purpose may not exceed 1.30m in height and 1,60m in spread.

    Athletes using such obstacles must not violate the 2 Gymnastic Poles: if there is enough space trotting poles may be used and placed not closer than 2,50m to a vertical obstacle not exceeding 1,30m in height.

    A trotting pole, not closer than 2,50m,when the obstacle is jumped at the trot or 3.00m if at the canter on the landing side may be used. 3 Exercising and Training: whenever possible provision should be made for Athletes to exercise and train in the presence of a steward for several hours in the morning.

    Athletes may change fences provided by the Organising Committee. 4.

    Placing Poles: if there is enough space placing poles may be used and placed on the ground not closer than 2.50 m on the take-off side of a vertical obstacle not exceeding 1.30 m in height.

    A placing pole may be used on the landing side not closer than 2.50 m when the obstacle is jumped at the trot or three metres if at the canter. 4 Combinations Combinations are permitted as long as there is enough space and if they are built with correct distances.

    The material must be provided by the Organising Committee When training areas are crowded Athletes may only use single obstacles.

    In addition the Chief Steward is authorised to restrict the number of horses using these areas at any one time. 5 Stewarding – Boot and Bandage Control At Events holding CSN status, the schooling area(s) (warming up ring) must always be supervised when in use.

    It is obligatory to carry out boot and bandage control on all horses taking part in South African Championships and during the competition with the highest prize money at each event.

    It is recommended that boot and bandage control be carried out during other competitions.

    Refer to the Jumping Stewards manual for the procedure for boot and bandage control.

    At least one steward must always be present whenever they are in use, to ensure that the rules are observed.

    Horses which lose a shoe prior to starting in the initial round of a one round competition with a jump off will be given a later starting position.

    In a jump off a horse with a loose shoe prior to starting will be given a new starting position three positions later.

    If the horse in question has not had its shoe replaced by this time it will be left to the discretion of the Ground Jury to decide whether the horse in question should receive a later starting place or be eliminated. 7.

    ABUSE OF HORSES (FEI Jumping Steward’s Manual) No person may abuse a horse during an event or at any other time.

    ABUSE is defined as acting in a way which may cause pain or discomfort to a horse.

    It means an action or omission which causes or is likely to cause pain or discomfort to a horse.

    This includes, but is not limited to, any of the following: – Excessive or inappropriate use of hand/leg and/or whip – To subject a horse to any kind of electric shock device – To exhaust or exercise an exhausted, lame or injured horse – Excessive or prolonged use of any training method or movement – To sensitise or desensitise any part of a horse – To leave a horse without adequate food, drink, bedding or movement/exercise – To use any device that causes pain to the horse If abuse is witnessed during an event, it should be reported as a protest (Art 167) to an Official.

    If an Abuse is witnessed at any other time it should be reported as a protest (Art 167) to the FEI Secretary General for referral to the Judicial Committee. 8.

    BE PRO-ACTIVE SITUATIONS NOT ALLOWED BUT NOT LIMITED TO… – Any behaviour or training method that could be considered as abusive to the horse; – Persons in charge of horses causing dangerous situations due to a lack of consideration to others; – Horses bleeding in the mouth/nose or indeed anywhere, or marks indicating excessive use of the whip and/or spurs anywhere on the horse (in minor cases of blood in the mouth, such as where a horse appears to have bitten its tongue or lip, Officials will authorize the rinsing or wiping of the mouth and allow the athlete to continue; any further evidence of blood in the mouth would result in disqualification); – Riding or walking with horse in hand in the main arena, without authorisation; – Riding in the Practice Arena when used without authorisation or outside the allowed time. 9.4 Stirrups In the interests of safety, the stirrup iron and the stirrup leather (this also applies to safety stirrups) must hang freely from the bar of the saddle and the outside of the flap.

    The Athlete must not directly or indirectly tie any part of his body to the saddlery.

    The stirrups “K’Vall” are not approved by the FEI and must not be used in FEI competition.

    Please refer below for a photo of these stirrups. 11.3.6 Practice Arenas – Is there enough schooling space? – Is lunging on a separate place or at special times? – Are sufficient Stewards available for the daily schooling? – Is there a timetable for schooling? – Is the ground maintained? – Is it similar to the competition ground? – Are the arenas numbered? – Are the Stewards briefed (according to schedules) ? – Are there shelters for the Stewards in adverse weather conditions? – Horse Ambulance: – Is it functional? – Is it connected to a vehicle? – Is it easily accessible? – Where is the key? – Does it have proper equipment? – Screen? – Sled? – Halter and Lead Ropes? – Is the arena entrance wide enough for the ambulance to pass easily? – If something goes wrong, is there a plan? – Who is in charge? – Has there been a rehearsal? – Who will organise setting up the screen? – Human Ambulance and Doctor? 11.3.7 Warming Up – Are starting lists and course plans available before the start of the competition? – How is the competition flow being organised? Should the Stewards help? (if YES, are there still enough Stewards?) – Are the lunging/flat areas separated? – Is a farrier readily available next to the warm-up? – Is ground-maintenance organised? – Is there contact between the GJ and the Chief Steward? – Is the prize-giving organised with GJ and OC?

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    Besides the points above enumerated, in which all the domestic races resemble C.

    Livia and each other, there is one which deserves special notice.

    The wild rock-pigeon is of a slaty-blue colour; the wings are crossed by two bars; the croup varies in colour, being generally white in the pigeon of Europe, and blue in that of India; the tail has a black bar close to the end, and the outer webs of the outer tail-feathers are edged with white, except near the tips.

    These combined characters are not found in any wild pigeon besides C.


    I have looked carefully through the great collections of pigeons in the British Museum, and I find that a dark bar at the end of the tail is common; that the white edging to the outer tail-feathers is not rare; but that the white croup is extremely rare, and the two black bars on the wings occur in no other pigeon, excepting the alpine C.

    Leuconota and C.

    Rupestris of Asia.

    Now if we turn to the domestic races, it is highly remarkable, as an eminent fancier, Mr.

    Wicking, observed to me, that, whenever a blue bird appears in any race, the wings almost invariably show the double black bars. (6/23.

    There is one exception to the rule, namely, in a sub-variety of the Swallow of German origin, which is figured by Neumeister, and was shown to me by Mr.


    This bird is blue, but has not the black wing-bars; for our object, however, in tracing the descent of the chief races, this exception signifies the less as the Swallow approaches closely in structure to C.


    In many sub-varieties the black bars are replaced by bars of various colours.

    The figures given by Neumeister are sufficient to show that, if the wings alone are blue, the black wing-bars appear.) The primary wing- feathers may be white or black, and the whole body may be of any colour, but if the wing-coverts are blue, the two black bars are sure to appear.

    I have myself seen, or acquired trustworthy evidence, as given below (6/24.

    I have observed blue birds with all the above-mentioned marks in the following races, which seemed to be perfectly pure, and were shown at various exhibitions.

    Pouters, with the double black wing-bars, with white croup, dark bar to end of tail, and white edging to outer tail-feathers.

    Turbits, with all these same characters.

    Fantails with the same; but the croup in some was bluish or pure blue.


    Wicking bred blue Fantails from two black birds.

    Carriers (including the Bagadotten of Neumeister) with all the marks: two birds which I examined had white, and two had blue croups; the white edging to the outer tail-feathers was not present in all.


    Corker, a great breeder, assures me that, if black carriers are matched for many successive generations, the offspring become first ash-coloured, and then blue with black wing-bars.

    Runts of the elongated breed had the same marks, but the croup was pale blue; the outer tail-feathers had white edges.

    Neumeister figures the great Florence Runt of a blue colour with black bars.

    Jacobins are very rarely blue, but I have received authentic accounts of at least two instances of the blue variety with black bars having appeared in England; blue Jacobins were bred by Mr.

    Brent from two black birds.

    I have seen common Tumblers, both Indian and English, and Short-faced Tumblers, of a blue colour, with black wing-bars, with the black bar at the end of the tail, and with the outer tail-feathers edged with white; the croup in all was blue, or extremely pale blue, never absolutely white.

    Blue Barbs and Trumpeters seem to be excessively rare; but Neumeister, who may be implicitly trusted, figures blue varieties of both, with black wing-bars.


    Brent informs me that he has seen a blue Barb; and Mr.


    Weir, as I am informed by Mr.

    Tegetmeier, once bred a silver (which means very pale blue) Barb from two yellow birds.), of blue birds with black bars on the wing, with the croup either white or very pale or dark blue, with the tail having a terminal black bar, and with the outer feathers externally edged with white or very pale coloured, in the following races, which, as I carefully observed in each case, appeared to be perfectly true: namely, in Pouters, Fantails, Tumblers, Jacobins, Turbits, Barbs, Carriers, Runts of three distinct varieties, Trumpeters, Swallows, and in many other toy-pigeons, which as being closely allied to C.

    Livia, are not worth enumerating.

    Thus we see that, in purely-bred races of every kind known in Europe, blue birds occasionally appear having all the marks which characterise C.

    Livia, and which concur in no other wild species.


    Blyth, also, has made the same observation with respect to the various domestic races known in India. Certain variations in the plumage are equally common in the wild C.

    Livia, in dovecote-pigeons, and in all the most highly modified races.

    Thus, in all, the croup varies from white to blue, being most frequently white in Europe, and very generally blue in India. (6/25.


    Blyth informs me that all the domestic races in India have the croup blue; but this is not invariable, for I possess a very pale blue Simmali pigeon with the croup perfectly white, sent to me by Sir W.

    Elliot from Madras.

    A slaty-blue and chequered Nakshi pigeon has some white feathers on the croup alone.

    In some other Indian pigeons there were a few white feathers confined to the croup, and I have noticed the same fact in a carrier from Persia.

    The Java Fantail (imported into Amoy, and thence sent me) has a perfectly white croup.) We have seen that the wild C.

    Livia in Europe, and dovecotes in all parts of the world, often have the upper wing-coverts chequered with black; and all the most distinct races, when blue, are occasionally chequered in precisely the same manner.

    Thus I have seen Pouters, Fantails, Carriers, Turbits, Tumblers (Indian and English), Swallows, Bald-pates, and other toy-pigeons blue and chequered; and Mr.

    Esquilant has seen a chequered Runt.

    I bred from two pure blue Tumblers a chequered bird. The facts hitherto given refer to the occasional appearance in pure races of blue birds with black wing-bars, and likewise of blue and chequered birds; but it will now be seen that when two birds belonging to distinct races are crossed, neither of which have, nor probably have had during many generations, a trace of blue in their plumage, or a trace of wing-bars and the other characteristic marks, they very frequently produce mongrel offspring of a blue colour, sometimes chequered, with black wing-bars, etc.; or if not of a blue colour, yet with the several characteristic marks more or less plainly developed.

    I was led to investigate this subject from MM.

    Boitard and Corbie (6/26. ‘Les Pigeons’ etc.

    Page 37.) having asserted that from crosses between certain breeds it is rare to get anything but bisets or dovecote pigeons, which, as we know, are blue birds with the usual characteristic marks.

    We shall hereafter see that this subject possesses, independently of our present object, considerable interest, so that I will give the results of my own trials in full.

    I selected for experiment races which, when pure, very seldom produce birds of a blue colour, or have bars on their wings and tail. The Nun is white, with the head, tail, and primary wing-feathers black; it is a breed which was established as long ago as the year 1600.

    I crossed a male Nun with a female red common Tumbler, which latter variety generally breeds true.

    Thus neither parent had a trace of blue in the plumage, or of bars on the wing and tail.

    I should premise that common Tumblers are rarely blue in England.

    From the above cross I reared several young: one was red over the whole back, but with the tail as blue as that of the rock-pigeon; the terminal bar, however, was absent, but the outer feathers were edged with white: a second and third nearly resembled the first, but the tail in both presented a trace of the bar at the end: a fourth was brownish, and the wings showed a trace of the double bar: a fifth was pale blue over the whole breast, back, croup, and tail, but the neck and primary wing-feathers were reddish; the wings presented two distinct bars of a red colour; the tail was not barred, but the outer feathers were edged with white.

    I crossed this last curiously coloured bird with a black mongrel of complicated descent, namely, from a black Barb, a Spot, and Almond-tumbler, so that the two young birds produced from this cross included the blood of five varieties, none of which had a trace of blue or of wing and tail-bars: one of the two young birds was brownish-black, with black wing-bars; the other was reddish-dun, with reddish wing-bars, paler than the rest of the body, with the croup pale blue, the tail bluish with a trace of the terminal bar. Mr.

    Eaton (6/27. ‘Treatise on Pigeons’ 1858 page 145.) matched two Short- faced Tumblers, namely, a splash cock and kite hen (neither of which are blue or barred), and from the first nest he got a perfect blue bird, and from the second a silver or pale blue bird, both of which, in accordance with all analogy, no doubt presented the usual characteristic marks. I crossed two male black Barbs with two female red Spots.

    These latter have the whole body and wings white, with a spot on the forehead, the tail and tail-coverts red; the race existed at least as long ago as 1676, and now breeds perfectly true, as was known to be the case in the year 1735. (6/28.


    Moore ‘Columbarium’ 1735; in J.M.

    Eaton’s edition 1852 page 71.) Barbs are uniformly-coloured birds, with rarely even a trace of bars on the wing or tail; they are known to breed very true.

    The mongrels thus raised were black or nearly black, or dark or pale brown, sometimes slightly piebald with white: of these birds no less than six presented double wing-bars; in two the bars were conspicuous and quite black; in seven some white feathers appeared on the croup; and in two or three there was a trace of the terminal bar to the tail, but in none were the outer tail-feathers edged with white. I crossed black Barbs (of two excellent strains) with purely-bred, snow- white Fantails.

    The mongrels were generally quite black, with a few of the primary wing and tail feathers white: others were dark reddish-brown, and others snow-white: none had a trace of wing-bars or of the white croup.

    I then paired together two of these mongrels, namely, a brown and black bird, and their offspring displayed wing-bars, faint, but of a darker brown than the rest of body.

    In a second brood from the same parents a brown bird was produced, with several white feathers confined to the croup. I crossed a male dun Dragon belonging to a family which had been dun- coloured without wing-bars during several generations, with a uniform red Barb (bred from two black Barbs); and the offspring presented decided but faint traces of wing-bars.

    I crossed a uniform red male Runt with a White trumpeter; and the offspring had a slaty-blue tail with a bar at the end, and with the outer feathers edged with white.

    I also crossed a female black and white chequered Trumpeter (of a different strain from the last) with a male Almond-tumbler, neither of which exhibited a trace of blue, or of the white croup, or of the bar at end of tail: nor is it probable that the progenitors of these two birds had for many generations exhibited any of these characters, for I have never even heard of a blue Trumpeter in this country, and my Almond-tumbler was purely bred; yet the tail of this mongrel was bluish, with a broad black bar at the end, and the croup was perfectly white.

    It may be observed in several of these cases, that the tail first shows a tendency to become by reversion blue; and this fact of the persistency of colour in the tail and tail-coverts (6/29.

    I could give numerous examples; two will suffice.

    A mongrel, whose four grandparents were a white Turbit, white Trumpeter, white Fantail, and blue Pouter, was white all over, except a very few feathers about the head and on the wings, but the whole tail and tail-coverts were dark bluish-grey.

    Another mongrel whose four grandparents were a red Runt, white Trumpeter, white Fantail, and the same blue Pouter, was pure white all over, except the tail and upper aill-coverts, which were pale fawn, and except the faintest trace of double wing-bars of the same pale fawn tint.) will surprise no one who has attended to the crossing of pigeons. The last case which I will give is the most curious.

    I paired a mongrel female Barb-fantail with a mongrel male Barb-spot; neither of which mongrels had the least blue about them.

    Let it be remembered that blue Barbs are excessively rare; that Spots, as has been already stated, were perfectly characterised in the year 1676, and breed perfectly true; this likewise is the case with white Fantails, so much so that I have never heard of white Fantails throwing any other colour.

    Nevertheless the offspring from the above two mongrels was of exactly the same blue tint as that of the wild rock-pigeon from the Shetland Islands over the whole back and wings; the double black wing-bars were equally conspicuous; the tail was exactly alike in all its characters, and the croup was pure white; the head, however, was tinted with a shade of red, evidently derived from the Spot, and was of a paler blue than in the rock-pigeon, as was the stomach.

    So that two black Barbs, a red Spot, and a white Fantail, as the four purely-bred grandparents, produced a bird exhibiting the general blue colour, together with every characteristic mark, the wild Columba livia. With respect to crossed breeds frequently producing blue birds chequered with black, and resembling in all respects both the dovecote-pigeon and the chequered wild variety of the rock-pigeon, the statement before referred to by MM.

    Boitard and Corbie would almost suffice; but I will give three instances of the appearance of such birds from crosses in which one alone of the parents or great-grandparents was blue, but not chequered.

    I crossed a male blue Turbit with a snow-white Trumpeter, and the following year with a dark, leaden-brown, Short-faced Tumbler; the offspring from the first cross were as perfectly chequered as any dovecote-pigeon; and from the second, so much so as to be nearly as black as the most darkly chequered rock-pigeon from Madeira.

    Another bird, whose great-grandparents were a white Trumpeter, a white Fantail, a white Red-spot, a red Runt, and a blue Pouter, was slaty-blue and chequered exactly like a dovecote-pigeon.

    I may here add a remark made to me by Mr.

    Wicking, who has had more experience than any other person in England in breeding pigeons of various colours: namely, that when a blue, or a blue and chequered bird, having black wing- bars, once appears in any race and is allowed to breed, these characters are so strongly transmitted that it is extremely difficult to eradicate them. What, then, are we to conclude from this tendency in all the chief domestic races, both when purely bred and more especially when intercrossed, to produce offspring of a blue colour, with the same characteristic marks, varying in the same manner, as in Columbia livia? If we admit that these races are all descended from C.

    Livia, no breeder will doubt that the occasional appearance of blue birds thus characterised is accounted for on the well-known principle of “throwing back” or reversion.

    Why crossing should give so strong a tendency to reversion, we do not with certainty know; but abundant evidence of this fact will be given in the following chapters.

    It is probable that I might have bred even for a century pure black Barbs, Spots, Nuns, white Fantails, Trumpeters, etc., without obtaining a single blue or barred bird; yet by crossing these breeds I reared in the first and second generation, during the course of only three or four years, a considerable number of young birds, more or less plainly coloured blue, and with most of the characteristic marks.

    When black and white, or black and red birds, are crossed, it would appear that a slight tendency exists in both parents to produce blue offspring, and that this, when combined, overpowers the separate tendency in either parent to produce black, or white, or red offspring. If we reject the belief that all the races of the pigeon are the modified descendants of C.

    Livia, and suppose that they are descended from several aboriginal stocks, then we must choose between the three following assumptions: firstly, that at least eight or nine species formerly existed which were aboriginally coloured in various ways, but have since varied in exactly the same manner so as to assume the colouring of C.

    Livia; but this assumption throws not the least light on the appearance of such colours and marks when the races are crossed.

    Or secondly, we may assume that the aboriginal species were all coloured blue, and had the wing-bars and other characteristic marks of C.

    Livia,–a supposition which is highly improbable, as besides this one species no existing member of the Columbidae presents these combined characters; and it would not be possible to find any other instance of several species identical in plumage, yet as different in important points of structure as are Pouters, Fantails, Carriers, Tumblers, etc.

    Or lastly, we may assume that all the races, whether descended from C.

    Livia or from several aboriginal species, although they have been bred with so much care and are so highly valued by fanciers, have all been crossed within a dozen or score of generations with C.

    Livia, and have thus acquired their tendency to produce blue birds with the several characteristic marks.

    I have said that it must be assumed that each race has been crossed with C.

    Livia within a dozen, or, at the utmost, within a score of generations; for there is no reason to believe that crossed offspring ever revert to one of their ancestors when removed by a greater number of generations.

    In a breed which has been crossed only once, the tendency to reversion will naturally become less and less in the succeeding generations, as in each there will be less and less of the blood of the foreign breed; but when there has been no cross with a distinct breed, and there is a tendency in both parents to revert to some long-lost character, this tendency, for all that we can see to the contrary, may be transmitted undiminished for an indefinite number of generations.

    These two distinct cases of reversion are often confounded together by those who have written on inheritance. Considering, on the one hand, the improbability of the three assumptions which have just been discussed, and, on the other hand, how simply the facts are explained on the principle of reversion, we may conclude that the occasional appearance in all the races, both when purely bred and more especially when crossed, of blue birds, sometimes chequered, with double wing-bars, with white or blue croups, with a bar at the end of the tail, and with the outer tail-feathers edged with white, affords an argument of the greatest weight in favour of the view that all are descended from Columba livia, including under this name the three or four wild varieties or sub-species before enumerated. — THE GOOSE. This bird deserves some notice, as hardly any other anciently domesticated bird or quadruped has varied so little.

    That geese were anciently domesticated we know from certain verses in Homer; and from these birds having been kept (388 B.C.) in the Capitol at Rome as sacred to Juno, which sacredness implies great antiquity. (8/20. ‘Ceylon’ by Sir J.E.

    Tennent 1859 volume 1 page 485; also J.

    Crawfurd on the ‘Relation of Domest.

    Animals to Civilisation’ read before Brit.

    Assoc. 1860.

    See also ‘Ornamental Poultry’ by Rev.


    Dixon 1848 page 132.

    The goose figured on the Egyptian monuments seems to have been the Red goose of Egypt.) That the goose has varied in some degree, we may infer from naturalists not being unanimous with respect to its wild parent-form; though the difficulty is chiefly due to the existence of three or four closely allied wild European species. (8/21.

    Macgillivray’s ‘British Birds’ volume 4 page 593.) A large majority of capable judges are convinced that our geese are descended from the wild Grey-leg goose (Anser ferus); the young of which can easily be tamed. (8/22.



    Strickland, ‘Annals and Mag.

    Of Nat.

    Hist.’ 3rd series volume 3 1859 page 122, reared some young wild geese, and found them in habits and in all characters identical with the domestic goose.) This species, when crossed with the domestic goose, produced in the Zoological Gardens, as I was assured in 1849, perfectly fertile offspring. (8/23.

    See also Hunter ‘Essays’ edited by Owen volume 2 page 322.) Yarrell (8/24.

    Yarrell’s ‘British Birds’ volume 3 page 142.) has observed that the lower part of the trachea of the domestic goose is sometimes flattened, and that a ring of white feathers sometimes surrounds the base of the beak.

    These characters seem at first sight good indications of a cross at some former period with the white-fronted goose (A.

    Albifrons); but the white ring is variable in this latter species, and we must not overlook the law of analogous variation; that is, of one species assuming some of the characters of allied species. As the goose has proved so little flexible in its organisation under long- continued domestication, the amount of variation which it has undergone may be worth giving.

    It has increased in size and in productiveness (8/25.


    Lloyd ‘Scandinavian Adventures’ 1854 volume 2 page 413, says that the wild goose lays from five to eight eggs, which is a much fewer number than that laid by our domestic goose.); and varies from white to a dusky colour.

    Several observers (8/26.

    The Rev.


    Jenyns (Blomefield) seems first to have made this observation in his ‘British Animals.’ See also Yarrell, and Dixon in his ‘Ornamental Poultry’ (page 139), and ‘Gardener’s Chronicle’ 1857 page 45.) have stated that the gander is more frequently white than the goose, and that when old it almost invariably becomes white; but this is not the case with the parent-form, the A.


    Here, again, the law of analogous variation may have come into play, as the almost snow-white male of the Rock goose (Bernicla antarctica) standing on the sea-shore by his dusky partner is a sight well known to those who have traversed the sounds of Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands.

    Some geese have top-knots; and the skull beneath, as before stated, is perforated.

    A sub-breed has lately been formed with the feathers reversed at the back of the head and neck. (8/27.


    Bartlet exhibited the head and neck of a bird thus characterised before the Zoological Soc.

    February 1860.) The beak varies a little in size, and is of a yellower tint than in the wild species; but its colour and that of the legs are both slightly variable. (8/28.


    Thompson ‘Natural Hist.

    Of Ireland’ 1851 volume 3 page 31.

    The Rev.


    Dixon gave me some information on the varying colour of the beak and legs.) This latter fact deserves attention, because the colour of the legs and beak is highly serviceable in discriminating the several closely allied wild forms. (8/29.



    Strickland in ‘Annals and Mag.

    Of Nat.

    Hist.’ 3rd series volume 3 1859 page 122.) At our Shows two breeds are exhibited; viz., the Embden and Toulouse; but they differ in nothing except colour. (8/30. ‘Poultry Chronicle’ volume 1 1854 page 498; volume 3 page 210.) Recently a smaller and singular variety has been imported from Sebastopol (8/31. ‘The Cottage Gardener’ September 4, 1860 page 348.), with the scapular feathers (as I hear from Mr.

    Tegetmeier, who sent me specimens) greatly elongated, curled, and even spirally twisted.

    The margins of these feathers are rendered plumose by the divergence of the barbs and barbules, so that they resemble in some degree those on the back of the black Australian swan.

    These feathers are likewise remarkable from the central shaft, which is excessively thin and transparent, being split into fine filaments, which, after running for a space free, sometimes coalesce again.

    It is a curious fact that these filaments are regularly clothed on each side with fine down or barbules, precisely like those on the proper barbs of the feather.

    This structure of the feathers is transmitted to half-bred birds.

    In Gallus sonneratii the barbs and barbules blend together, and form thin horny plates of the same nature with the shaft: in this variety of the goose, the shaft divides into filaments which acquire barbules, and thus resemble true barbs. Although the domestic goose certainly differs somewhat from any known wild species, yet the amount of variation which it has undergone, as compared with that of most domesticated animals, is singularly small.

    This fact can be partially accounted for by selection not having come largely into play.

    Birds of all kinds which present many distinct races are valued as pets or ornaments; no one makes a pet of the goose; the name, indeed, in more languages than one, is a term of reproach.

    The goose is valued for its size and flavour, for the whiteness of its feathers which adds to their value, and for its prolificness and tameness.

    In all these points the goose differs from the wild parent-form; and these are the points which have been selected.

    Even in ancient times the Roman gourmands valued the liver of the WHITE goose; and Pierre Belon (8/32. ‘L’Hist.

    De la Nature des Oiseaux’ par P.

    Belon 1555 page 156.

    With respect to the livers of white geese being preferred by the Romans see Isid.

    Geoffroy St.-Hilaire ‘Hist.


    Gen.’ tome 3 page 58.) in 1555 speaks of two varieties, one of which was larger, more fecund, and of a better colour than the other; and he expressly states that good managers attended to the colour of their goslings, so that they might know which to preserve and select for breeding. THE PEACOCK. This is another bird which has hardly varied under domestication, except in sometimes being white or piebald.


    Waterhouse carefully compared, as he informs me, skins of the wild Indian and domestic bird, and they were identical in every respect, except that the plumage of the latter was perhaps rather thicker.

    Whether our birds are descended from those introduced into Europe in the time of Alexander, or have been subsequently imported, is doubtful.

    They do not breed very freely with us, and are seldom kept in large numbers,–circumstances which would greatly interfere with the gradual selection and formation of new breeds. There is one strange fact with respect to the peacock, namely, the occasional appearance in England of the “japanned” or “black-shouldered” kind.

    This form has lately been named on the high authority of Mr.

    Sclater as a distinct species, viz.

    Pavo nigripennis, which he believes will hereafter be found wild in some country, but not in India, where it is certainly unknown.

    The males of these japanned birds differ conspicuously from the common peacock in the colour of their secondary wing-feathers, scapulars, wing-coverts, and thighs, and are I think more beautiful; they are rather smaller than the common sort, and are always beaten by them in their battles, as I hear from the Hon.



    The females are much paler coloured than those of the common kind.

    Both sexes, as Mr.

    Canning informs me, are white when they leave the egg, and they differ from the young of the white variety only in having a peculiar pinkish tinge on their wings.

    These japanned birds, though appearing suddenly in flocks of the common kind, propagate their kind quite truly.

    Although they do not resemble the hybrids which have been raised between P.

    Cristatus and muticus, nevertheless they are in some respects intermediate in character between these two species; and this fact favours, as Mr.

    Sclater believes, the view that they form a distinct and natural species. (8/33.


    Sclater on the black-shouldered peacock of Latham ‘Proc.


    Soc.’ April 24, 1860.


    Swinhoe at one time believed, ‘Ibis’ July 1868, that this kind of peafowl was found wild in Cochin China, but he has since informed me that he feels very doubtful on this head.) On the other hand, Sir H.

    Heron states (8/34. ‘Proc.


    Soc.’ April 14, 1835.) that this breed suddenly appeared within his memory in Lord Brownlow’s large stock of pied, white, and common peacocks.

    The same thing occurred in Sir J.

    Trevelyan’s flock composed entirely of the common kind, and in Mr.

    Thornton’s stock of common and pied peacocks.

    It is remarkable that in these two latter instances the black-shouldered kind, though a smaller and weaker bird, increased, “to the extinction of the previously existing breed.” I have also received through Mr.

    Sclater a statement from Mr.

    Hudson Gurney that he reared many years ago a pair of black-shouldered peacocks from the common kind; and another ornithologist, Prof.


    Newton, states that, five or six years ago, a female bird, in all respects similar to the female of the black-shouldered kind, was produced from a stock of common peacocks in his possession, which during more than twenty years had not been crossed with birds of any other strain.


    Jenner Weir informs me that a peacock at Blackheath whilst young was white, but as it became older gradually assumed the characters of the black-shouldered variety; both its parents were common peacocks.

    Lastly, Mr.

    Canning has given a case of a female of this same variety appearing in Ireland in a flock of the ordinary kind. (8/35. ‘The Field’ May 6, 1871.

    I am much indebted to Mr.

    Canning for information with respect to his birds.) Here, then, we have seven well authenticated cases in Great Britain of japanned birds, having suddenly appeared within recent times in flocks of the common peafowl.

    This variety must also have formerly appeared in Europe, for Mr.

    Canning has seen an old picture, and another is referred to in the ‘Field,’ with this variety represented.

    These facts seem to me to indicate that the japanned peacock is a strongly marked variety or “sport,” which tends at all times and in many places to reappear.

    This view is supported by the young being at first white like the young of the white breed, which is undoubtedly a variation.

    If, on the other hand, we believe the japanned peacock to be a distinct species, we must suppose that in all the above cases the common breed had at some former period been crossed by it, but had lost every trace of the cross; yet that the offspring of these birds suddenly and completely reacquired through reversion the characters of P.


    I have heard of no other such case in the animal or vegetable kingdom.

    To perceive the full improbability of such an occurrence, we may suppose that a breed of dogs had been crossed at some former period with a wolf, but had lost every trace of the wolf-like character, yet that the breed gave birth in seven instances in the same country, within no great length of time, to a wolf perfect in every character; and we must further suppose that in two of the cases, the newly produced wolves afterwards spontaneously increased to such an extent as to lead to the extinction of the parent breed of dogs.

    So remarkable a bird as the P.

    Nigripennis, when first imported, would have realised a large price; it is therefore improbable that it should have been silently introduced and its history subsequently lost.

    On the whole the evidence seems to me, as it did to Sir R.

    Heron, to be decisive in favour of the japanned or black-shouldered breed being a variation, induced by some unknown cause.

    On this view, the case is the most remarkable one ever recorded of the abrupt appearance of a new form, which so closely resembles a true species that it has deceived one of the most experienced of living ornithologists. THE TURKEY. It seems fairly well established by Mr.

    Gould (8/36. ‘Proc.


    Soc.’ April 8, 1856 page 61.


    Baird believes (as quoted in Tegetmeier ‘Poultry Book’ 1866 page 269) that our turkeys are descended from a West Indian species now extinct.

    But besides the improbability of a bird having long ago become extinct in these large and luxuriant islands, it appears (as we shall presently see) that the turkey degenerates in India, and this fact indicates that it was not aboriginally an inhabitant of the lowlands of the tropics.), that the turkey, in accordance with the history of its first introduction, is descended from a wild Mexican form, which had been domesticated by the natives before the discovery of America, and which is now generally ranked as a local race, and not as a distinct species.

    However this may be, the case deserves notice because in the United States wild male turkeys sometimes court the domestic hens, which are descended from the Mexican form, “and are generally received by them with great pleasure.” (8/37.

    Audubon ‘Ornithological Biography’ volume 1 1831 pages 4- 13; and ‘Naturalist’s Library’ volume 14 ‘Birds’ page 138.) Several accounts have likewise been published of young birds, reared in the United States from the eggs of the wild species, crossing and commingling with the common breed.

    In England, also, this same species has been kept in several parks; from two of which the Rev.


    Fox procured birds, and they crossed freely with the common domestic kind, and during many years afterwards, as he informs me, the turkeys in his neighbourhood clearly showed traces of their crossed parentage.

    We here have an instance of a domestic race being modified by a cross with a distinct wild race or species.


    Michaux (8/38.


    Michaux ‘Travels in N.

    America’ 1802 English translation page 217.) suspected in 1802 that the common domestic turkey was not descended from the United States species alone, but likewise from a southern form, and he went so far as to believe that English and French turkeys differed from having different proportions of the blood of the two parent-forms. English turkeys are smaller than either wild form.

    They have not varied in any great degree; but there are some breeds which can be distinguished as Norfolks, Suffolks, Whites, and Copper-coloured (or Cambridge), all of which, if precluded from crossing with other breeds propagate their kind truly.

    Of these kinds, the most distinct is the small, hardy, dull-black Norfolk turkey, of which the chickens are black, occasionally with white patches about the head.

    The other breeds scarcely differ except in colour, and their chickens are generally mottled all over with brownish-grey. (8/39. ‘Ornamental Poetry’ by the Rev.


    Dixon 1848 page 34.) The inferior tail-coverts vary in number, and according to a German superstition the hen lays as many eggs as the cock has feathers of this kind. (8/40.

    Bechstein ‘Naturgesch.

    Deutschlands’ b. 3 1793 s. 309.) Albin in 1738, and Temminck within a much later period, describe a beautiful breed, dusky-yellowish, brown above and white beneath, with a large top- knot of soft plumose feather.

    The spurs of the male were rudimentary.

    This breed has been for a long time extinct in Europe; but a living specimen has lately been imported from the east coast of Africa, which still retains the top-knot and the same general colouring and rudimentary spurs. (8/41.


    Bartlett in ‘Land and Water’ October 31, 1868 page 233; and Mr.

    Tegetmeier in the ‘Field’ July 17, 1869 page 46.) Mr.

    Wilmot has described (8/42. ‘Gardener’s Chronicle’ 1852 page 699.) a white turkey-cock having a crest formed of “feathers about four inches long, with bare quills, and a tuft of soft white down growing at the end.” Many of the young birds inherited this kind of crest, but afterwards it fell off or was pecked out by the other birds.

    This is an interesting case, as with care a new breed might probably have been formed; and a top-knot of this nature would have been to a certain extent analogous to that borne by the males in several allied genera, such as Euplocomus, Lophophorus, and Pavo. Wild turkeys, believed in every instance to have been imported from the United States, have been kept in the parks of Lords Powis, Leicester, Hill, and Derby.

    The Rev.


    Fox procured birds from the two first-named parks, and he informs me that they certainly differed a little from each other in the shape of their bodies and in the barred plumage on their wings.

    These birds likewise differed from Lord Hill’s stock.

    Some of the latter kept at Oulton by Sir P.

    Egerton, though precluded from crossing with common turkeys, occasionally produced much paler-coloured birds, and one that was almost white, but not an albino.

    These half-wild turkeys, in thus differing slightly from each other, present an analogous case with the wild cattle kept in the several British parks.

    We must suppose that such differences have resulted from the prevention of free intercrossing between birds ranging over a wide area, and from the changed conditions to which they have been exposed in England.

    In India the climate has apparently wrought a still greater change in the turkey, for it is described by Mr.

    Blyth (8/43.


    Blyth ‘Annals and Mag.

    Of Nat.

    Hist.’ 1847 volume 20 page 391.) as being much degenerated in size, “utterly incapable of rising on the wing,” of a black colour, and “with the long pendulous appendages over the beak enormously developed.” THE GUINEA FOWL. — Gartner (11/106. ‘Bastarderzeugung’ s. 619.) quotes two separate accounts of branches of dark and white-fruited vines which had been united in various ways, such as being split longitudinally, and then joined, etc.; and these branches produced distinct bunches of grapes of the two colours, and other bunches with berries, either striped, or of an intermediate and new tint.

    Even the leaves in one case were variegated.

    These facts are the more remarkable because Andrew Knight never succeeded in raising variegated grapes by fertilising white kinds by pollen of dark kinds; though, as we have seen, he obtained seedlings with variegated fruits and leaves, by fertilising a white variety by the already variegated dark Aleppo grape.

    Gartner attributes the above-quoted cases merely to bud-variation; but it is a strange coincidence that the branches which had been grafted in a peculiar manner should alone thus have varied; and H.

    Adorne de Tscharner positively asserts that he produced the described result more than once, and could do so at will, by splitting and uniting the branches in the manner described by him. I should not have quoted the following case had not the author of ‘Des Jacinthes’ (11/107.

    Amsterdam 1768 page 124.) impressed me with the belief not only of his extensive knowledge, but of his truthfulness: he says that bulbs of blue and red hyacinths may be cut in two, and that they will grow together and throw up a united stem (and this I have myself seen) with flowers of the two colours on the opposite sides.

    But the remarkable point is, that flowers are sometimes produced with the two colours blended together, which makes the case closely analogous with that of the blended colours of the grapes on the united vine branches. In the case of roses it is supposed that several graft-hybrids have been formed, but there is much doubt about these cases, owing to the frequency of ordinary bud-variations.

    The most trustworthy instance known to me is one, recorded by Mr.

    Poynter (11/108. ‘Gardener’s Chron.’ 1860 page 672 with a woodcut.) who assures me in a letter of the entire accuracy of the statement.

    Rosa devoniensis had been budded some years previously on a white Banksian rose; and from the much enlarged point of junction, whence the Devoniensis and Banksian still continued to grow, a third branch issued, which was neither pure Banksian nor pure Devoniensis, but partook of the character of both; the flowers resembled, but were superior in character to those of the variety called Lamarque (one of the Noisettes), while the shoots were similar in their manner of growth to those of the Banksian rose, with the exception that the longer and more robust shoots were furnished with prickles.

    This rose was exhibited before the Floral Committee of the Horticultural Society of London.


    Lindley examined it and concluded that it had certainly been produced by the mingling of R.

    Banksiae with some rose like R.

    Devoniensis, “for while it was very greatly increased in vigour and in size of all the parts, the leaves were half-way between a Banksian and Tea-scented rose.” It appears that rose-growers were previously aware that the Banksian rose sometimes affects other roses.

    As Mr.

    Poynter’s new variety is intermediate in its fruit and foliage between the stock and scion, and as it arose from the point of junction between the two, it is very improbable that it owes its origin to mere bud-variation, independently of the mutual influence of the stock and scion. Lastly, with respect to potatoes.



    Trail stated in 1867 before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh (and has since given me fuller information), that several years ago he cut about sixty blue and white potatoes into halves through the eyes or buds, and then carefully joined them, destroying at the same time the other eyes.

    Some of these united tubers produced white, and others blue tubers; some, however, produced tubers partly white and partly blue; and the tubers from about four or five were regularly mottled with the two colours.

    In these latter cases we may conclude that a stem had been formed by the union of the bisected buds, that is, by graft- hybridisation. In the ‘Botanische Zeitung’ (May 16, 1868), Professor Hildebrand gives an account with a coloured figure, of his experiments on two varieties which were found during the same season to be constant in character, namely, a somewhat elongated rough-skinned red potato and a rounded smooth white one.

    He inserted buds reciprocally into both kinds, destroying the other buds.

    He thus raised two plants, and each of these produced a tuber intermediate in character between the two parent-forms.

    That from the red bud grafted into the white tuber, was at one end red and rough, as the whole tuber ought to have been if not affected; in the middle it was smooth with red stripes, and at the other end smooth and altogether white like that of the stock. Mr.

    Taylor, who had received several accounts of potatoes having been grafted by wedge-shaped pieces of one variety inserted into another, though sceptical on the subject, made twenty-four experiments which he described in detail before the Horticultural Society. (11/109. ‘Gardener’s Chronicle’ 1869 page 220.) He thus raised many new varieties, some like the graft or like the stock; others having an intermediate character.

    Several persons witnessed the digging up of the tubers from these graft-hybrids; and one of them, Mr.

    Jameson, a large dealer in potatoes, writes thus, “They were such a mixed lot, as I have never before or since seen.

    They were of all colours and shapes, some very ugly and some very handsome.” Another witness says “some were round, some kidney, pink-eyed kidney, piebald, and mottled red and purple, of all shapes and sizes.” Some of these varieties have been found valuable, and have been extensively propagated.


    Jameson took away a large piebald potato which he cut into five sets and propagated; these yielded round, white, red, and piebald potatoes. Mr.

    Fitzpatrick followed a different plan (11/110. ‘Gard.

    Chronicle’ 1869 page 335.); he grafted together not the tubers but the young stems of varieties producing black, white, and red potatoes.

    The tubers borne by three of these twin or united plants were coloured in an extraordinary manner; one was almost exactly half black and half white, so that some persons on seeing it thought that two potatoes had been divided and rejoined; other tubers were half red and half white, or curiously mottled with red and white, or with red and black, according to the colours of the graft and stock. The testimony of Mr.

    Fenn is of much value, as he is “a well known potato- grower” who has raised many new varieties by crossing different kinds in the ordinary manner.

    He considers it “demonstrated” that new, intermediate varieties can be produced by grafting the tubers, though he doubts whether such will prove valuable. (11/111. ‘Gardener’s Chronicle’ 1869 page 1018 with remarks by Dr.

    Masters on the adhesion of the united wedges.

    See also ibid 1870 pages 1277, 1283.) He made many trials and laid the results, exhibiting specimens, before the Horticultural Society.

    Not only were the tubers affected, some being smooth and white at one end and rough and red at the other, but the stems and leaves were modified in their manner of growth, colour and precocity.

    Some of these graft-hybrids after being propagated for three years still showed in their haulms their new character, different from that of the kind from which the eyes had been taken.


    Fenn gave twelve of the tubers of the third generation to Mr.


    Dean, who grew them, and was thus converted into a believer in graft- hybridisation, having previously been a complete sceptic.

    For comparison he planted the pure parent-forms alongside the twelve tubers; and found that many of the plants from the latter (11/112. ‘Gard.

    Chronicle’ 1871 page 837.) were intermediate between the two parent-forms in precocity, in the tallness, uprightness, jointing, and robustness of the stems, and in the size and colour of the leaves. Another experimentalist, Mr.

    Rintoul, grafted no less than fifty-nine tubers, which differed in shape (some being kidneys) in smoothness and colour (11/113. ‘Gardener’s Chronicle’ 1870 page 1506.) and many of the plants thus raised “were intermediate in the tubers as well as in the haulms.” He describes the more striking cases. In 1871 I received a letter from Mr.

    Merrick, of Boston, U.S.A., who states that, “Mr.

    Fearing Burr, a very careful experimenter and author of a much valued book, ‘The Garden Vegetables of America’ has succeeded in producing distinctly mottled and most curious potatoes–evidently graft-hybrids, by inserting eyes from blue or red potatoes into the substance of white ones, after removing the eyes of the latter.

    I have seen the potatoes, and they are very curious.” We will now turn to the experiments made in Germany, since the publication of Prof.

    Hildebrand’s paper.

    Herr Magnus relates (11/114. ‘Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin’ October 17, 1871.) the results of numerous trials made by Herren Reuter and Lindemuth, both attached to the Royal Gardens of Berlin.

    They inserted the eyes of red potatoes into white ones, and vice versa.

    Many different forms partaking of the characters of the inserted bud and of the stock were thus obtained; for instance, some of the tubers were white with red eyes. Herr Magnus also exhibited in the following year before the same Society (November 19, 1872), the produce of grafts between black, white, and red potatoes, made by Dr.


    These were made by uniting not the tubers but the young stems, as was done by Mr.


    The result was remarkable, inasmuch as all the tubers thus produced were intermediate in character, though in a variable degree.

    Those between the black and the white or the red were the most striking in appearance.

    Some from between the white and red had one half of one colour and the other half of the other colour. At the next meeting of the society Herr Magnus communicated the results of Dr.

    Heimann’s experiments in grafting together the tubers of red Saxon, blue, and elongated white potatoes.

    The eyes were removed by a cylindrical instrument, and inserted into corresponding holes in other varieties.

    The plants thus produced yielded a great number of tubers, which were intermediate between the two parent-forms in shape, and in the colour both of the flesh and skin.

    Read more about Piebald : The mongrels thus raised were black or nearly black or….:

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  • Equestrian Products – Guardian Horse Bedding, Equiderma Skin Products, Equilinn Sports Bra, Learn more about Pacifier Holder Clip HERE: and Piebald : The mongrels thus raised were black or nearly black or…. - Piebald : The mongrels thus raised were black or nearly black or…. and Piebald : The mongrels thus raised were black or nearly black or…. - Piebald : The mongrels thus raised were black or nearly black or….

    Hanoverian : Caletto I Inspekteur Rythmus Wenzel I Mozart II79 Rohdiamant SANDRO….

    Cleaning and show preparation - For the Horse Horses-store.comHanoverian : Caletto I Inspekteur Rythmus Wenzel I Mozart II79 Rohdiamant SANDRO….

    Breed KWPN DWB KWPN Rheinländer KWPN Rheinland Hannoveraner FWB OLDBG DWB KWPN Hannoveraner KWPN WESTF KWPN Rheinländer KWPN Studbook Sire KWPN DWB KWPN RHEIN KWPN RHEIN HANN FWB OLDBG DWB KWPN HANN KWPN WESTF KWPN RHEIN KWPN Jazz MICHELLINO SOLOS CAREX DVH 609 Herzruf Metall Ehrentusch Weltmeyer Donnerhall August der Starke DONNERHALL Negro SAO PAULO GRIBALDI DONNERHALL Contango Fidermark T.C.N.PARTOUT Aarking xx GRIBALDI Don Davidoff UNIRE OLDBG KWPN WESTF ROHDIAMANT Rohdiamant JAZZ FLORESTAN Dam Fidora VIRGINIA NORALINE Charisma Odelia Rythme Winja Montserrat Weinrubina OXENHOLM PAMINA Maifleur ST.PR.

    LEGATA LOMINKA ROMANZE Hautain Wapita CHARITES Cerrin ESTHER Wey o mey WELTGIRL Frappant O.BERTJE Delphine Dam’s Sire Ulft IBSEN AMIRAL ZW.P.S.

    Caletto I Inspekteur Rythmus Wenzel I Mozart II79 Rohdiamant SANDRO LEGAT GLENDALE RUBINSTEIN I Democraat Worldchamp ROEMER Cavalier AMOR White Star WELTMEYER Freudenprinz CONTANGO Delphi Page 1 of 26 HANOVERIAN HANN KWPN Hannoveraner SI Oldenburger KWPN WESTF KWPN 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: Dressage FEI WBFSH World Ranking List – Dressage Horse 31/07/2011 (include validated results from 01/10/2010 to 31/07/2011) 9 Rank 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Horse Name FERNANDEZ APOLLO VAN HET VIJVERHOF VALENTINO G MOEDWIL FUEGO DE CARDENAS D’AGOSTINO 5 LE MONT D’OR RUBINS ROYAL RAFALCA U II ELVIS VA RANDON KRAWALL POP ART CHABLIS FABERGE BLUE HORS ROMANOV DIVOZA HORSEWORLD OVATION WINYAMARO SKOVLUNDS MÁS GUAPO CORYOLANO ELMEGARDENS MARQUIS Points 1740 1735 1702 1700 1690 1675 1668 1653 1650 1649 1645 1645 1645 1642 1638 1609 1603 1600 1576 1576 1574 1566 FEI pass No Birth 103CD53 BEL40805 102NV75 NED42354 ESP03698 GER42139 GER42480 GER44534 USA10997 USA40734 GER27120 POL01866 NED05819 CAN02715 DEN02287 ESP03272 DEN40408 NED08217 GER42878 DEN40427 IRL40143 EST40062 2000 2000 2002 1994 1998 2000 1999 1997 1997 2001 1996 1997 1992 1997 1997 1996 2000 1996 2000 1998 1996 1999 — Dam Wembre TINNEKE Ranette G HARIANNE Mundana Serenade Wie Andrea Virginia RATINE ROHDIVA Georgia Rafa SP ZILVIA JODYPRINSES FALNA Akelei RUMIRELL Gerona Taiga RAMSHØJS GAMBLING Florina Elmegaardens Sisi Dam’s Sire Weinburg RITMEISTER Damiro Beaujolais ELEGIDO III Shogun xx Wie Weltmeyer Vargas xx RUBINSTEIN ROHDIAMANT Garibaldi II Fanimo KWPN ROEMER CABOCHON LEONARDO II Akzent I GRUNDSTEIN II Apollonios Trapper CANNON ROW XX GAJUS Lucky Light Page 2 of 26 BWP KWPN KWPN PRE Hannoveraner Oldenburger Oldenburger OLDBG KWPN Hannoveraner SP KWPN KWPN DWB BWP KWPN KWPN P.R.E.

    HANN OLDBG OLDBG OLDBG KWPN HANN PHBA KWPN KWPN DWB WELT HIT II Ferro Goodwill UTRERANO VII De Niro Landjuwel Gold Rubinstein I ARGENTINIUS JAZZ Espri Czuwaj SP FOCUS AMSTERDAM CASTRO Falkland ROHDIAMANT HANOVERIAN HANN OS KWPN Hannoveraner DWB Bayerisches Warmblut DWB DWB BAVAR DWB KWPN Cabochon Walt Disney MASTER CORIOLAN Michellino 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: Dressage FEI WBFSH World Ranking List – Dressage Horse 31/07/2011 (include validated results from 01/10/2010 to 31/07/2011) 9 Rank 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Horse Name EXQUIS CLEARWATER TOY STORY FELECIANO DARK DIAMOND 22 BMC PHOEBE DVB CALECTO V COME ON III RUBI CORINTH BIAGIOTTI WW LOUIS D’OR BUKOWSKI RIVER OF JOY 3 LEO AF MAGNUSHÖJ DORINA PRO – SET WAKANA WEINZAUBER 2 EKWADOR WIE-ATLANTICO DE YMAS HELIO II MACBRIAN MARTINI Points 1566 1564 1562 1549 1537 1536 1521 1520 1510 1501 1497 1485 1485 1483 1483 1473 1472 1463 1452 1448 1447 1444 1442 — Dam ABIGIRL Cessna Barette Ramira GIANNE BAHERA CANNA He-Xila FUMIRO DEVISA 208333198701828 SUNJIST XX CALLAS LEORINA Dam’s Sire LIMEBRAND Concorde Barbados Ramiro’s Son ULFT RASTELL LANTAAN Xaquiro DIEGO XX Grandis JUNIUS XX CAVALIER LEONARDO 2 Ragtime FLEMMINGH WANDERBURSCH II Upan la Jarthe Corofino I holst Rondo BANQUERO VI Brabant Madryt Page 3 of 26 SWEDISH SWB WARMBLOOD HANN DWB DWB KWPN SATHU Westfale SP HANN DWB DWB KWPN SATHU WESTF PHBA Blue Hors Don Schufro Riga JET-SET D WOLKENTANZ II Weinberg Heraldik XX Wie Weltmeyer JELESTA WALESKA Utopie Enigma hol.

    Ronja HANOVERIAN HANN PRE Swedish Warmblood WLKP P.R.E.

    SWB PHBA FLAMENCO XII 1979 A VIVA II Briar 899 Deryl SP Brazanja Mazda SP 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: Dressage FEI WBFSH World Ranking List – Dressage Horse 31/07/2011 (include validated results from 01/10/2010 to 31/07/2011) 9 Rank 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 Horse Name JADE DE MV FERERO CLASSIC SANDMAN EICHENDORFF DAIANIRA VAN DE HELLE PASSE PARTOUT (NL) BOCELLI 1044 D’ARTAGNAN FABRIANO 58 INTERFLOOR NEXT ONE FRYSO HUYS CAS PARISH OLIVIER BIGGLES 1015 MILAN LYDIANUS QUANTICO LE BEAU PREMIER WERNER (NL) PRESTIGE GIRASOL 7 Points 1435 1431 1426 1420 1412 1392 1389 1388 1383 1372 1370 1366 1362 1361 1352 1347 1346 1346 1342 1341 1334 1334 — Breed Westfale Österr.


    JOHNSON Cdesp KWPN DWB FERRO Jazz RAMBO SANDRO HIT 333330471993 Florestan Dam Devisa Toscana Picabo ROSENFEE LYRA Asternblute II LAJKA GAROUPA Werona HAVANNA Widney CALINA ALBERTE LINDEBJERG Amanda MADETTE BABIECA XII Odlinde-s JUBEL CASCADE 331310810797 Envie de Lully Dam’s Sire Diego xx Coriograf B Potsdam ROSENKAVALIER LATUS II Ajan TUISCA Warkant CONSUL Weltstar CALATO DIAMANT Aron HENDO BINGUERO Juventus RAMPAL CONTENDER 321210023884 Gauguin de Lully Württemberger BAD-WÜ GHH DWB Danish Warmblood DUTCH WARMBLOOD CDE KWPN DWB HANOVERIAN Schweizer WB CH GHH DWB DWB 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Page 5 of 26 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: Dressage FEI WBFSH World Ranking List – Dressage Horse 31/07/2011 (include validated results from 01/10/2010 to 31/07/2011) 9 Rank 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 124 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 Horse Name RUBEL 13 REMEMBER 143 WORLD PERFORMANCE WASHINGTON XIRIPITI SAL PORT SAID 10 PAVAROTTI 85 GRAN GESTO GACHINO RELÂMPAGO DO RETIRO STERNTALER-UNICEF CIOWA SAMBA AYSCHA LENNOX FATINITZA LAMBORGHINI 64 ROKOKO N LE GUERRIER (DE) PEGASUS MK PARADIESZAUBER RUBIOSA Points 1282 1278 1272 1270 1268 1268 1265 1258 1257 1253 1247 1246 1245 1245 1235 1227 1219 1216 1215 1211 1208 1205 — Studbook Sire OLDBG KWPN RUBINSTEIN I CAREFUL Wolkenstein APCRC QUALIFICADO Mississipe WESTF KWPN OLDBG BAD-WÜ Lusit OLDBG PHOENIX Ferro GRANNOX GARDEZ LUAR Sion CHEENOK Inca WELT HIT II Laurentianer FRIEDENSFUERST HOLST LAVALETTO Rubinstern Noir DE NIRO (DE) HAN ELCARO PARADIESVOGEL (WEST) RUBINSTAR Dam ? UJOLEIN Hauptstutbuch REBOLEIRA Maia BLUETENPRACHT Geante GOLDI CHARADE ATINADA Alina WANJA Noruega AFRICAN DREAM Fenestra KOKOMAUS FARAH XII Mandy RUBINA (WESTF) CANDINE KANDY (SAHNA) FURIOSA Dam’s Sire Tin Rocco PRINS OREGON Windhuk MOSCATEL Golegã BRENTANO II Saros GOLDSTERN CHINATOWN ARGONAUTA Manstein WITTELSBACH Habil ROULETTO Florestan I COLAMBO FELDHERR Montano Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Gelding Stallion Mare Gelding Mare Gelding Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Mare Lusitana WESTF KWPN OLDBG BAD-WÜ LUSIT OLDBG HANOVERIAN HANN APSL Lusitano OLDENBURG Westfalen Hannoverian HOLST Lusit OLDBG WESTF Brandenburger BRAND OLDENBURG ER KWPN SACHSENANHALTEN HESS OLDBG KWPN SACHS HANN L.RONALD Furioso II Page 6 of 26 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: Dressage FEI WBFSH World Ranking List – Dressage Horse 31/07/2011 (include validated results from 01/10/2010 to 31/07/2011) 9 Rank 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 — Dam’s Sire Calypso II CANDYBOY HAMLET Lagano LATANO Darlington Andrew Oldenburger OLDBG BWP Tinea Van Het Goorhof Coriolan unknow Delba DAILE ATHENE HAGA Cindy DAION RAMBO HARS Cacir AA unknow Mare Gelding Gelding Gelding Mare Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Mare Gelding HANOVERIAN HANN Hannover KWPN KWPN DWB KWPN KWPN DWB Hannoverian LATVIAN WARMBLOOD DWB SP Westfale TRAKEHNER DWB PHBA WESTF TRAK Khodar GUDVILS L1540 MICHELLINO LORD ALEXANDER Pit I Rufs Mazepa Mitjulands EISENHERZ I Matcho AA FRUHLING LAURIES CRUSADOR ELISABETH XX Wolkenstein II Jazz GRIBALDI (DE) TRAK SOLOS CAREX Minna Kind of Magic MOON SOLIJ KWPN DIVA CANNON ROW Page 7 of 26 09/08/2011 14:00:58 — DWB PRE DWB P.R.E.

    DWB TRAK SWB DWB OLDBG MICHELLINO CORTESANO VII Michellino Werstowoj WARSTEINER 946 BLUE HORS DON SCHUFRO Breitling W Gymnastik Star WOERNITZ AQUILES III Allex Topkij DWIGHT Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Mare Gelding Stallion Gelding Stallion Gelding Mare Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Dänisches Warmblut TRAKEHNER Swedish Warmblood DWB OLDBG Hanoverian PRE BLUE HORS ROSITTA BLUE HORS ROMANCIER Devisa Kinnordy Dancing Faraona LXII Rhapsodie Diego xx Daktylus ISLEÑO XIII Rio Branco P.R.E.

    HANN Caribou Escudo II DWB DWB DWB DWB DWB DWB WESTF Ragazzo SANDRO HIT Lucky Light MEDICI EHRENTUSCH Aktuell Samantha POLKA NEXEN Teike DAYENNA FURSTIN Ann Lady af Hvarre Wanda ROMANI — Rank 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 Horse Name RODRIGO III O.HOT CHOCOLATE LAMARC WRT WILSON DONNERBUBE 2 WITH YOU ON TOP GULDEN CHARLESTON III CARTIER S.

    RAPPE KH ARVAN DEVON L ODYSSEY BARTLGUT’S DA PARI DEGAS WITHNEY VAN ‘T GENTHOF ATHOS 7 CURRENCY DC FERRA LUXFORM’S POPEYE DON DIOR LANCET 2 Points 1028 1026 1023 1022 1017 1011 1007 1002 1000 994 993 990 988 987 979 978 977 974 970 967 961 935 933 FEI pass No Birth AUS40205 EST00130 GER41542 102SI08 GER20009 POL40103 NED07102 RUS40622 SUI41252 NOR40397 POL40190 102UM49 CAN02851 USA08900 AUT40582 CAN02517 BEL12116 CZE40442 USA10641 ESP40605 NED07167 102MY60 NED06248 2000 1996 1996 1995 1994 2001 1996 1998 2000 2001 1999 1998 2000 1996 1998 1999 1999 1997 2000 1998 1997 2000 1993 Sex Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Mare Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Gelding Mare Gelding Gelding Stallion Breed Hanoverian KWPN OLDBG Studbook Sire Rotspon KWPN OLDBG MENDO Leggiero Wanderbursch II Donnerhall WELTREGENT H JETSET-D DRAGUN HANN DWB KWPN CHARON BLUE HORS CAVAN Ronaldo Anamour DE NIRO FERRO Dream of Heidelberg DONNER HALL FERRO Adriano-1 OLDBG CLINTINO Ferro KWPN HANN HAVEL Don Gregory WENZEL I Dam Mona Lisa AUKE Odessa Wolina Dam’s Sire INDIAAN Kronprinz xx World Cup II HANOVERIAN HANN OLDBG OLDBG HANOVERIAN HANN KWPN Trakennian HANN DWB KWPN Hanoverian HANOVERIAN HANN KWPN ZWEIB OLDBG BWP Czech WB OLDENBURG OLDENBURG ER KWPN Hannoveraner KWPN ZWEIB OLDBG BWP KWPN DOROTHEE BALLADE GEOFIZIKA DOZENTIN ROSCHE Marloes Demure WIBRANDA GERINA Cinderella PRETTY LADY PRINCESSE Dasa CINDERELLA Fluksie JIRDONIE Mon Amie STELLA H DONNERWETTER PERICLES KHALIF DON PRIMERO BLUE HORSE ROMANCIER Balzflug Dynamit WOLKENSTEIN II ZEBULON Cavalier PRING MIRO BALZFLUG Dietward-4 CLASSIKER Sylvester DILLENBURG Matcho AA SHOGUN Page 9 of 26 HANOVERIAN HANN 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: Dressage FEI WBFSH World Ranking List – Dressage Horse 31/07/2011 (include validated results from 01/10/2010 to 31/07/2011) 9 Rank 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 Horse Name POTIFAR OSTRA WS NEVADA MAYFIELD PZAZZ AUHEIM’S PICARDO ORLANDO BROHOLM’S HIGHLIGHT REPLAY NORTHERN CAMPION PARTOUS HILLTOP DON RODRIGO GOSH MISTRAL DU COUSSOUL PICONERO IV DUKE BREANNA BOMOND WONDER FRH DISTELZAR FIRST CLASS 53 REGALO BRIONI W GOLDEN FIRE Points 921 920 910 909 893 880 874 873 870 868 867 850 846 843 842 841 838 833 833 827 826 819 818 FEI pass No Birth NOR01879 BEL11189 AUS40823 AUS01022 103DP44 NOR02176 DEN02577 102YU18 AUS01015 USA08289 ITA08599 102ML36 FRA12690 ESP03538 ESP41359 USA42245 FIN01283 GER27856 GER23770 GER44505 102SW90 GER42944 RUS40139 1997 1996 1994 1997 2001 1998 1998 2001 1993 1997 1999 1993 2000 1999 2000 2000 1999 1997 1998 1999 1998 2001 1999 — HEMMINGWAY OSCAR Globe Attack LUSIT PRE Lusit P.R.E. SCAPIN RBO Lotero II DE NIRO BRENTANO II GALA DES MENAUTS ALEGRE XIX SBM Piconera X FABIA WORLD QUEEN ULTIMADO V FABRIANO WELTMEYER HANOVERIAN HANN HANOVERIAN HANN HANOVERIAN HANN TRAK Rheinland Lusitano TRAK RHEIN Lusit Werther Gribaldi Florestan I OPus-72 Breitling ZINDERS 71 Martha Distelgold Toskana Joca Devisa DIATHERMIA 44 Maat Arogno Landadel Coral Diego xx DERZKIY 38 Page 10 of 26 Stallion Stallion Westfale Budjonnian 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: — Kolyma Classiker Sherlock Holmes KWPN WESTF DWB Warmblood KWPN WESTF DWB FLEMMINGH CARACOL Michellino GHIL MANOR LOMBARD Lotte Spudalshoj HANOVERIAN HANN Holsteiner Warmblut HOLST WALT DISNEY I Leandro FLORESTAN I L’Amie I-Caletta MABEL Warthe Santana CIGONDA Northern Fandango VIP Lady Akansas Donnergirl PARTRICIA JULISKA Lemon xx Caletto I HANOVERIAN HANN SachsenAnhaltiner KWPN Holsteiner WB Oldenburger Trakehner Westfallen DWB SFB SF TRAK SA KWPN Donnerhall Preussenulan NEGRO Northern Hermes Wenckstern Sixtus Florestan MAGO XX GRIBALDI Wendepunkt Sandor ROTHSCHILD Volturno Angard HERBSTSTURM DONBITO VAN DE HELLE Page 11 of 26 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: Dressage FEI WBFSH World Ranking List – Dressage Horse 31/07/2011 (include validated results from 01/10/2010 to 31/07/2011) 9 — Mare Gelding Stallion Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding KWPN OLDENBURG KWPN KWPN HANN Oldenburger LU OLDBG KWPN PABLO Burggraaf ZEP DYNAMO Argentinus CHREVIS CAVALLO Sion erik Maraschino Pilot Matcho KWPN KWPN HANN OLDBG DWB OLDBG KWPN Karandasj JAZZ ROHDIAMANT De Niro SOLOS LANDTINUS Welt Hit II kennedy Rohdiamant Florestan I Wolkenstein II HANOVERIAN HANN Westfale Hannoveraner WESTF HANN 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Page 12 of 26 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: Dressage FEI WBFSH World Ranking List – Dressage Horse 31/07/2011 (include validated results from 01/10/2010 to 31/07/2011) 9 Rank 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 Horse Name PFALSTAFF VALERON NAPOLITAIN D’EXCELLENCE WELTZIN FLORETT AS DEAUVILLE 33 MONTESSE HORSEBO SMARTIES RAJA ORLANDO P DON ANDROSSO MR PRESIDENT IV TOPOL LAMBADERO ROMEO LUCIANO 182 GOLDEN COIN 4 JAYBEE ALABASTER REX VICTORY SALUTE ONLY SOCIETY Points 645 645 644 641 636 636 635 634 634 634 631 630 630 627 622 619 612 611 610 609 606 — Sex Gelding Stallion Stallion Stallion Stallion Mare Mare Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Breed HANN KWPN Studbook Sire HANN KWPN PALLADIUM SANDRO HIT Natiello xx Weltbogen Dam GROSSE LIEBE NAOMIE Cash Light Werthvoll Frh UNFORGETTABLE Rommy Duchesse SALSA ERIDANA Lorraine A QUEEN OF SNOW Dam’s Sire GRENADIER HOUSTON Calypso II Werther Urofino Alabaster Ceylon RAMIRO’S BUBE EHRENTUSCH Winckenburgh AKZENT II HANOVERIAN HANN WESTF Bayer Swedish Warmblood DWB WESTPHALIA N KWPN BAD-WÜR WESTF BAVAR SWB DWB FLORESTAN I Donnerschwee Bernstein GRIBALDI ROYAL DIAMOND KWPN BAD-WÜ Landwind II B DONNERSCHLAG UKRANIAN HOLST OLDENBURG ER HANNOVERA NNER BWP HOLST OLDBG HANN BWP PRIVAT LOTHRINGER ROHDIAMANT, OLD LE BEAU (DE) HANN Tropinka ORINOL FRIESOYTHE, OLD WANDERKIND (DE) HANN PRIZ XX HANOVERIAN HANN KWPN Australian Warmblood KWPN KWPN KWPN ALABASTER JAZZ Salute Damocles GLORIA MADORYKE Esprit Ilonka G GLORIEUX CONTANGO Cassis Page 13 of 26 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: Dressage FEI WBFSH World Ranking List – Dressage Horse 31/07/2011 (include validated results from 01/10/2010 to 31/07/2011) 9 — DWB BWP KWPN RUBINSTEIN I SAROS VAN ‘T GESTELHOF KRACK C (KWPN Feiner Stern Landadel RAGTIME LATINO DWB HOLST SOLOS CAREX CORIALL TRAK Hanoverian Bayer Oldenburger TRAK Hyllos Anamour Siri Arabella Flair Jessica Furlanda Polargeist Winnebago Alcatraz Landadel Page 14 of 26 BAVAR Rivero II De Niro 09/08/2011 14:00:58 — Sex Mare Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Stallion Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Breed Hannoverian Studbook Sire HANN WELTMEYER BRIAR 899 Heraldik XX Contango LAGNUS H 186 DWB HANN KWPN SCHWADRONEUR Brentano II ZEOLIET VOZGON-26 SALIERI Dam BACCARA LILY´S APRIL XX Wintermärchen Parodie IGFA T 149 HELLAS Weltlady WOLINDA BABBETA ST.


    LUNA Dam’s Sire BOLERO LANE COURT XX 800 Wettstreit Platon SWEDISH SWB WARMBLOOD BAD-WÜ KWPN LATV DWB Hannoveraner KWPN HANNOVERIA N HANOVERIAN HANN ORLOV ROSTOPCHIN KWPN Thoroughbred X KWPN Landsudvalget Anglo budjonnian Dutch Warmblood X Trakehner TRAKEHNER Holsteiner WESTF WESTF KWPN KWPN BAD-WÜ KWPN DONAUWIND Weltmeyer PRETENDENT BAGUCHAR XX LUNGAU JULIUS Glendevon Commander jazz Lanciano FLAGMAN Flemmingh ILETTA About Time nekina Lisca KLADOVKA Neversfelde Freude BURGGRAAF Coober Prince zeoliet Lucky Light KRIMINAL 349 350 351 REMBO HARMONY’S CALINUS FIFTH AVENUE 4 434 431 429 — HANN DWB Lusit Landfriese OLD Derik HAN PARI-ACE DANE MIDT-WEST IBI-LIGHT DIACE ENGVANG Gelding Mare Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Mare Bayerisches Warmblut Hanoverian Swedish Warmblood KWPN SWB KWPN RAIMONDO Anamour Chapman JAZZ WOLKENSTEIN II LAKARINA Bedlam Hanna Bell TANJA MEDINA Lady Pandemonium Uttini LE FAQUIN MATCHO AA Lord BadenWürttemberg KWPN BAD-WÜ KWPN Calido Donnerschlag Nancy — Breed OLDBG WESTF WESTF KWPN RHEIN KWPN KWPN KWPN Studbook Sire OLDBG WESTF WESTF KWPN RHEIN KWPN KWPN KWPN Don Primero Fidermark Florestan I RHLD VINCENT Fidermark GRIBALDI, TRAK Jetset-D WELT HIT II WOLKENSTEIN II Warkant KRACK C ACOBAT II Sherwood D-Day WELT HIT II IDOCUS Fabriano Londonderry RHEIN Fidermark I Embroque OLDBG Royal Diamond FLORESTAN I SANTINI OLDBG KWPN Don Larino JAZZ Dam Wuestenfee Philis Ricarda WESTf DIGRANTA Lara FLICKA, KWPN Karian JUDITH MARLEN Woelfi GRACIA HANNA Wasti Daisy JIRONDINE NELISSA Panny Lane Cortina Gondolette Marqueza Dam’s Sire Raimondo Potsdam Ramiroff WESTF ROEMER Libanon Fair Play COCKTAIL MAAT Walzertraum HANOVERIAN HANN HANN KWPN Holsteiner Hannoveraner KWPN KWPN KWPN Hannoverian Hannoveraner Rheinländer Lusitana HANN KWPN HOLST HANN KWPN KWPN KWPN LEONID Wanderer Purioso FERRO G RAMIRO Z Pik Solo Cordoba Grosso Z Danubio KWPN HANOVARIAN Oldenburger KWPN KWPN NUDAULA ALINE Richenza BELINDA PION Angelino BLANC RIVAGE Page 18 of 26 09/08/2011 14:00:58 — Dam’s Sire FRUHLING HANN HANN Condor M Federweisser ADELANTE SHERWOOD Laurentianer Demonstrator Dynamo Charmeur SEVILLANO IX LANDADEL Rosenkavalier HANOVERIAN HANN PRE S.I.

    Westfale P.R.E.

    UNIRE WESTF Czech WB PRE Hannover P.R.E.

    HANN Corrado -T Talisman IV Convoi Wanderer ZEOLIET Louis Heslegard ZAPROS DWB HANN HANN BLUE HORS CAVAN WELTRUHM Rotsporn Lucky Champ WESTF PHBA Acord II Cezar Wharfs Son FALKRICH Löwenmut Expres Dux Gutenberg Ladalco Labrador KHERSON FANAL PRYDSHOLM WAIDMANNSDANK XX Laptop Donnerhall Admirano Dido Unknown HANOVERIAN HANN KWPN Oldenburger Trakenner DWB HANN Hannover Holsteiner Westfale SP Thoroughbred X HOLSTEINER KWPN OLDBG 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Page 19 of 26 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: Dressage FEI WBFSH World Ranking List – Dressage Horse 31/07/2011 (include validated results from 01/10/2010 to 31/07/2011) 9 Rank 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 Horse Name AMADEUS 432 JULI SHERIF PODEROSO DO RETIRO AKEEM MY CHARMING VALENTINE PAPILLON RUDI’S MEMORY TAMA PARK BRADMAN VANQUEUR PASOA REVE DE NEIGE HAGELS ACHAT NOBLEMAN PHARAOH PORTUGAL AQUINO BARTLGUT’S LIMOTAS NORTHERN ATLAS ACHENBACH DARTAGNAN ZACTAC GRACEFUL Points 281 281 279 279 278 276 276 271 270 267 265 263 261 260 259 258 258 257 257 256 255 — Sex Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Mare Gelding Mare Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Mare Breed Holstein DWB LUSIT DWB Studbook Sire HOLST DWB Lusit DWB Akinos MAY SHERIF DISTINTO LOBSTER Dam Sorinna MALENE ORLA DO TOP SARI SIKIM Dam’s Sire Calypso I ALEXSANDER AFIANÇADO DE FLANDES AGA-KHAN Hannoverian Trakehner Holsteiner KWPN KWPN OLDENBURG FWB HANN BELGIUM WB APSL Lusitano HOLST Holsteiner Warmblood Hanoverian WESTF Hanoverian X TB WESTF Lusit HOLST HOLST FWB HANN KWPN KWPN TRAK Pommery Gribaldi Don Ramiro Negro Damocles ROSENZAUBER Angard HATIELLO XX FERRO 87.151 INFANTE AKINOS Limbus Falkland Victory ANAMOUR DINARD L The Graduate Lajana Rispe IV Northern Minerva Carole Lora VOLTIGE Amethiste WEIRA HEUREKA VH RAMPELHOF QUIETA CINDY V Helena XV Northern TY Chloe REGAL RIGHT FAMA Singapore Girl LA Bartholdy Contact G.

    Ramiro Z Hamilton VOLTURNO Labirynt xx WENZEL II CARNEVAL ESTRIBILHO CARETINO Calando I WARWAWK FORTISSIMO Le Falu 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Page 20 of 26 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: — Sex Gelding Gelding Stallion Stallion Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Stallion Stallion Gelding Gelding Gelding Breed Hannoveraner Studbook Sire HANN Wolkenstein II WALT DISNEY I Aachimedes Donnerhall ALANO III Michellino Warsteiner 946 SAVOY HECHO Cantour KWPN KWPN LANCET Come Back II Eklat KWPN BAVAR Olivi Palermo LAVAGANTE FSA (PT) LUS RAGAZZO Weltmeyer MONDRIAAN Dam Lysandra Escada Stirling Coriander Kaprice G BAVIERA IV Kassiopeia Höjris Janina DELTA VI INFANTA XVII Hell or Highwater ULLA Pearl Hauptstutbuch Graefin Pomp Ozelma Warga ODISSEIA (PT) LUS RUSSIAN MELODY Brentina MIKADO Dam’s Sire Lanthan Espri HANOVERIAN HANN Australian Warmblood OLDBG PRE Danish Warmblood Swedish Warmblood SI PRE American Warmblood KWPN Danish Warmblood Hannovarian KWPN Bayerisches Warmblut AWHA OLDBG P.R.E.

    DWB SWB UNIRE P.R.E. KARON PERUANO Kassander Judex xx SULTAN REMATE Condino NIMMERDOR Graf Douglas Cabochon SOUFFLEUR PURE RACE Lusit LUSITANIENE DWB DWB MAY SHERIF Brentano II CABOCHON Page 21 of 26 HANOVERIAN HANN KWPN KWPN 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: Dressage FEI WBFSH World Ranking List – Dressage Horse 31/07/2011 (include validated results from 01/10/2010 to 31/07/2011) 9 Rank 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 467 Horse Name EL BEG WANTINO CH PASTOR GUB JOSE KILEN SEBASTIAAN INSAR WERTHEIMER ROSSINI 121 Points 233 232 231 230 230 228 228 228 FEI pass No Birth EST00063 103DE89 POR40140 102XG58 NED40582 RUS40626 102SX54 GER26880 1993 1999 1996 2001 1999 2000 2001 1997 — WANDERER RADIANT MADEIRA VOLSEBNICA Abbey Row Eleonore ALBERTE Juno TOJA ETTOLESIL ALIBARDA Gloriette Khorda CORDULA IX (TRAK) LINKA Chjanel MATCHO AA VALERIK Cannon Row Lord Extra DIAMANT Universo OFICIAL ESTANZ DWB BAVAR DWB Lusit Michellino Life is Life BLUE HORS DON SCHUFRO Xaquiro LATINO ARCHIPEL RANG Rubinstein I Draugs HANOVERIAN HANN TRAK TRAK HANOVERIAN HANN Latvian TRAKEHNER TRAK KWPN Glorieux Homers INSTER GRADITZ (TRAK) HIERARCH Hohenstein Gelding Gelding KWPN Hannoveraner UNKNOWN Consul Page 22 of 26 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: — Studbook Sire WELLINGTON KWPN FLEMMINGH XAQUIRO J K Lucas SUGUNAS XX Dam LAGUNA DEGLI ABRUZZI WORRITA COCA L A Star WESERPRINCESS HACENDOSA XIII Bandarilha II Jude’S Legend Dam’s Sire Trapezio ROEMER MARAVILHA Tiger Trail STEDEBERGEN QUEMADOR II Universo March Legend Mare Mare Stallion Stallion Gelding Stallion Mare Gelding Holsteiner PRE Lusitana Hanoverian X P.R.E. CABACO Peninsular Anamour DWB Swedish Warmblod WESTFALEN RIDING HORSE DWB SWB WESTF MICHELLINO Zephyr 829 DINARD L (Westfal) PURPLE RAIN Amanda TOP DORETTE (Westfal) Anika Saratoga FILON D’OR Gaspari 340 — Hannover Gelding Gelding Mare Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding Gelding BWP Hungarian Warmblood HANN KWPN KWPN Norwegian Warmblood HANN KWPN KWPN DWB BWP Weltmeyer FERRO Enying Catani-13 Argentinus HAARLEM JAZZ (NL) KWPN Come Back II Westerland LANDCLASSIC, HAN Rockwell De Niro Wanderkoenig Classic Hauptstatbuch Gana LANDGRAVIN (BWP) Akác Tara GDADERMIE FEDELTRAUD (OES) Gazelle Anthea GALINA E, HAN Renetta La Be Dunja Midt-West Rebecca Galvano Aldato III-2 Tannenhain xx LADALCO 218060377 WALLDORFc Kassander Askan HANOVERIAN HANN HANNOVERA NER Westfale HANN WESTF Renoir I Landino Dakar World Record xx Page 25 of 26 Mare Stallion Gelding Westfale HANOVERIAN HANN DWB DWB 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Discipline: Ranking / Standing Name: Ranking / Standing Date: Ranking / Standing No: Dressage FEI WBFSH World Ranking List – Dressage Horse 31/07/2011 (include validated results from 01/10/2010 to 31/07/2011) 9 Rank 546 547 547 549 550 550 552 553 554 554 556 557 558 559 559 561 562 563 564 564 564 Horse Name HELIOS CARUSO VISTOSO XI RAISON D’ETRE KIR ROYAL ROHDIAM ADONNA FORD DON PRINCIPE RASTEDE KATALEIS VILJA WORLD HORSES FERRO LOUTAN NERO DE LA FAZENDA LOTHRINGER 6 BELDONWELT LADALCO SHOWFIELDS CRUSADER ROMEO-STAR ATYLLA PREGO Points 91 88 88 87 77 77 76 73 72 72 71 68 67 66 66 64 63 61 52 52 52 FEI pass No Birth NOR02389 SWE05163 ESP04355 USA09126 NED05143 SUI41195 103EC18 RUS00712 USA41197 GER44229 SWE40885 GER44144 NOR01847 BEL40673 102UJ36 ITA08612 JPN40072 NZL40578 RUS40441 POL01657 NED08036 2000 1997 2000 1998 1992 1997 1998 1995 1999 2001 1997 1997 1997 1995 1999 1998 1993 1998 2001 1997 1997 — HANN OLDBG SWB KWPN DONNERHALL Rubinstein I Cortez 697 Ferro SILAS KWPN Holstein UNIRE KWPN Westf/Hann KWPN HOLST UNIRE KWPN DAMIRO Lothringer De Niro I Grand Kavalier ROMANTIC STAR Argentinus ZAZOU HANOVERIAN HANN OLDBG KWPN OLDBG KWPN 09/08/2011 14:00:58 Page 26 of 26

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